Thursday, March 8, 2012


Synthesis of Natural Assets of Bolu and Düzce Provinces (Source: UTTA Ltd)


Assoc. Prof. Dr.  Mehmet Tunçer 1*, Ass. Prof. Dr. Arda Yalçuk2

1AIBU Eng. & Arch. Fac., Architecture Department, Golkoy-BOLU
2AIBU Eng. Arch. Fac., Environmental Engineering Department, Golkoy-BOLU

*author to contact , Tel.: 0 374 254 10 00 / 4226, Fax: 0 374 2534558

In this study; environmental and urban pressures arising in the Province of Duzce and Bolu in the aftermath of biggest earthquake that occurred on Adapazarı, Kocaeli, Golcuk segment of Northern Anatolia Fault (NAF) Line on 17 August 1999 and continued in the magnitude of Ms=7.4 under Richter scale and approximately for 45-50 seconds are examined. Demands regarding housing, industry, storage in particular after the earthquake, orientation outside Kocaeli Region and consequently environmental problems in the province of Bolu caught up unprepared and unplanned and taking preventive measures on the scale of Province and city with a permanent rise in environmental problems are also examined.  The aim of this paper is estimation of potential environmental problems for future in Duzce and Bolu and determination of measures required to be taken.
Keywords: Bolu, Duzce, Marmara Earthquake, Environmental Problems, Environmental Master Plan

Earthquake influenced the entire Marmara Region and cities like Duzce and Bolu located on the eastern extension of NAF also in Istanbul, Izmit and Adapazarı. More than 20 000 people was dead in this catastrophic earthquake. Urban demands like housing, industry, storage, etc. after the earthquake were oriented to cities like Duzce and Bolu connected directly to metropolitan cities through TEM highway. Particularly with the declaration of the Provinceof Duzce as “Province of Priority in Development”, the industrial development in this province is determined to be higher compared to the province of Bolu. The province of Bolu, displayed a growth rate lower than the average for Turkey in the period 1970-1990 with a general expression. As for between 1990-2000, this development is observed to have been oriented to Duzce declared as Province whereas in Bolu, this development was rather too slow.  
While the total rate of increase in employment was 0.020 in Turkey for the said period, this value was realised as 0.015 for the province of Bolu. Industries in which the provinceof Bolu manifested an increase in employment higher than that of Turkeyaverage were EGS (Electricity, Gas, Water), Financial Organisations and Social Services. This development resulted from public sector employment.  
Besides, the rise in employment within the Construction Sector is same as Turkey’s average and Manufacturing Industry Sector is very close to Turkey’s average. Figures indicate that public sector invested in services, while private sector made investment in activities oriented towards production chiefly in manufacturing industry.    
Though the largest sector development tendency in the province of Bolu is in EGS sector; developments in these sectors are caused by labour shifts between institutions, as mentioned before. 
Furthermore, the largest development with respect to work force is seen in the Banking Sector with a value of 334 for the year 1990 if we consider the value for 1970 as 100. This sector is followed in turn by Commerce, Construction, Social Services and Manufacturing Industry. The Province of Bolu is rated as 134 as of year 1990 with a total workforce increase index for 1970-1990 period.
The province of Bolu has had a workforce growth higher than provinces of Western Black Sea Region (BKB) within 1970-1990 period.  In fact Regional total workforce increase index was found to be 129 as of 1990 in the said period. This value is smaller than the index for Bolu province.
In evaluations made with respect to sectors, Bolu manufacturing industry work force increase index was observed to be at a figure of 210, higher than the value of 145, BKB manufacturing industry index. In other words, Bolu manufacturing industry developed faster than the Region through 1970-1990 period. As opposed to that, the growth in agricultural sector is below BKB average. On the other hand, in presentation of urban service presentations which could be named as service sector other than Transport-Communication-Storage (UHD) service, indexes for the Province of Bolu turned out to be higher than regional values. This situation can be interpreted as having varied its economy with respect to BKB and grew higher than the Region in which it is located.  
2.Material and Method
In this study, environmental data, socio-economic data, population data regarding the provinces of Bolu and Duzce and statistical data for Organised Industrial Zones are used. Furthermore, upper scale planning works reports and plan rules are benefited from.
1/100 000 Scale Plans is planning scale including “STRATEGIES”, “MACRO TARGET and DECISIONS”. This plan could be regarded as “CONSTITUTION” of all other plans. Bolu Province Environmental Arrangement Planning works started in 1998, but paused for about two years following great damage and destruction caused by 1999 Marmara and November 1999 Duzce earthquakes. After the earthquake, Bolu and Duzce were separated and they became two separate provinces. Provincial Environmental Master that started in integration by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement was requested to be separated as two separate provinces (Plan 1).

Under Bolu Province Environmental Master Plan (2020) Decisions and Implementation Rules (1/100 000) Report, the targets of Environmental Master Plan is determined as[1]
·        Determination of planning targets and strategies of the province,
·        Improving development targets of different sectors in a healthy environment in the context of sustainability by safeguarding nature, historical and cultural values of the Province,
·        Laying the foundation of planning decisions to become an input to any type of physical plans to be prepared at lower scale.  

3. Results and Discussion
In Bolu, overall populations is seen to have increased by 2.27 times and reached 553 022 between 1935-2000. While the rate of urban population to overall population was 11,5% in 1935, this rate reached 48% in 2000. While the rate of urban population to overall population remained constant at 11,5% between 1935-1950, this rate increased to 16% in 1960, 21% in 1970, 24% in 1980, jumped to 38% in 1990 and rose to 48% in 2000.
After building of Organised Industrial Zone established on an area of 73 hectares on E5 highway in 1983, advantages like non-disposal of efficient agricultural areas, establishment of joint filtration facilities and availability of infrastructure facilities are procured.
Organised Industrial Zone; is established with the credit support of the Ministry of Industry and Trade by Bolu Provincial Special Administration, Bolu Municipality, Bolu Chamber of Commerce and Industry. 61 parcels are available on it. 46 of 51 factories that are established are actively in operation. Activities are under way in the region in the sectors of wood, metal, electricity, oily soya, machinery, beet cleaning, glass, plastic joinery, chemicals, polyurethane and clothing. About 2.400 persons are under recruitment in the region and the total capacity of employment is around 4.000 persons. Though OSB is not filled up, some industries are choosing location on agricultural land, therefore environmental problems are arising.
According to 2000 general population census held in 2000 following 1999 earthquake, it is seen that emigration from the province of Bolu was higher than immigration into Bolu, in other words immigration was around (-10%). According to results of Address Based Population Registry System (ADNKS), population of some villages of Bolu the only province across the country with no population rise, yet a slight fall exceeded county populations. Population of Bolu which was 270 thousand 650 persons in 2000 Population Census was announced as 270 thousand 417 in 2007 census. Bolu became the only province with a decreasing population across the country. In this context; changes were observed in environmental problems of the Province . These problems are discussed below in brief.
a. Water Pollution:Büyüksu covering Bolu valley from one end to the other and underground water displaying extensive coverage with its branches, Gölkay Dam built for agricultural irrigation and many sources are available. Besides, there are recreation areas like Abant, Gölcük and Yedigöller outside study area. Among them Abant feeds Büyüksu.
On Bolu Valley, factories largely in food industry (chicken breeding, potato, etc.) having chosen location in various places outside Organised Industrial Zone are leaving their wastes to Büyüksu River either directly or indirectly via side rivers. Bolu urban sewage system pollutes Büyüksu on an important scale. In addition to all these, smoke and cement dust coming from chimney of Cement Factory are largely polluting environment.   
Bolu province sewage network construction was completed in 1980, its approximate length is 350 km. Waste water collected on eastern and western coasts of the city is being discharged into Büyüksu river with two main collectors. Besides, waste water of Karacasu Municipality is being discharged to Büyüksu in the same region with a separate collector. A new treatment facility is constructed on the road to Karacasu Village in the south of Bolu. Water sources that became subject to pollution in years 2005-2006 and reasons of their pollution are briefed in the Table below.
Table 1Water Sources and Reasons of Pollution
                                                                 Pollution Reasons
Water Source
Domestic Liquid Waste
Domestic Solid Waste
Industrial Waste
Agricultural Waste
Buyuksu River
Mudurnu River
Ulusu River
Mengen Creek
Goynuk Creek

Reasons of pollution arising from waste water are given below©.
1. Insufficient sewage system.
2. Insufficient treatment of domestic waste water in location.
3. Unsufficiency of collective treatment in small industries.
4. Failure to build sewage holes in a healthy manner and discharge of this waste haphazardly with sewage truck.    
5. Uncontrolled use of agricultural struggle disinfectants.
Problems caused by waste water in receiving environment; can be listed as manifestation of changes by water in physical and chemical characteristics, causing reproduction of insects and harmful living things, threatening lives of living things in receiving environment.
As a measure for problems in this context, build-up and renewal of sewage network, use of sewage in settlement centre, keeping industrial waste subject to treatment, realisation of sufficiently frequent controls, provision of discharge limits of enterprises according to the Regulation of Prevention of Water Pollution ?? (2004) to obtain permission can be listed. Bolu Municipality connected waste water of factories to main waste-water system of City in 2007-2008. Therefore a comprehensive solution will be provided to pollution of Büyüksu River and many floods. Within the scope of infrastructure of Organised Industrial Zone, sewage, rain water, drinking water and roads are completed, asphalt coating is made. Within the Organised Industrial Zone, facilities polluting their environment and nature, including chemical waste are not included in parcel and assignment stage.  
b. Air Pollution: As of end 2006, among 40 industrial organisation established within the borders of Bolu Province, the number of those with treatment facilities is 13. Number of organisation with permission for emission from chimney is 12. These results indicate that about 33% of industrial organisations are not continuing their operation in the direction to decrease environmental pollution. Figure 4 displays the number of facilities with respect to field of operation within provincial borders.  
Figure 1. Changes in the Number of Facilities in Sectors With Regard to 2006-2007 Operations Report

In 2006-2007 winter season, the province of Bolu took part among provinces of 1.Group Polluted provinces with respect to Air Pollution. Use of quality coal was attempted to be made widespread with the purpose of decreasing pollution and frequent controls were made by Environment Forestry Provincial Department. The most definite solution in decreasing this pollution; is thought to be introduction of natural gas and first initiatives were made by entering into natural gas line tender.  In summer of 2008 the natural gas pipes construction was begun.
c. Solid Wastes:
When solid waste of the province of Bolu are considered, average amount of solid waste per person in the province where population is 84 000 (2005-2006) is 1.90 kg/day. Average amount of collected solid waste is 159 tons/day. Waste composition is 40% organic, 21% plastic, 13% glass, 6% paper, etc. Current disposal method is irregular storage, it has gained a modern facility with the operation of regular strorage field in 2007. By means of this facility, incineration of solid wastes thereby transformation into energy is provided.
3.2. Duzce Province Sector Development Tendencies
Duzce, is a province that encountered destructive effect of earthquakes which happened in 1999 and of which urban life went through great change for having passed into provincial status. Particularly the second earthquake centered on Duzce-Kaynaşlı effected the industry of province, by causing production losses and high rate of unemployment due to physical damage and closed down work-places.  
While the population of centre was around 80.000 before earthquake, it has fallen down to 60.000 after the earthquake. However, as a province receiving immigration very fast, it seems inescapable that the population of Duzce will rise very soon.  
During the earthquake, 3.837 work places big or small were demolished, 2.572 work places were damaged at medium level, while 1.606 work places were slightly damaged making a total of 8.016 damaged work-places.
Duzce is composed of county centres and Cumayeri, Gölyaka, Gümüşova and Çilimli districts. Estimated population size for the year 2020 of the Duzce Province where urban activities will develop and vary most is at the level of 235 000 persons. Certainly, this depends to some extent on realisation of external factors like railway.  

Table 2: Duzce Urban Development Sub-Region Fundamental Characteristics

 * Specialisation in all urban sectors 
2 882 ha.
  * Relative development in industrial sector 

 * Maximum care to Melen Creek water protection line and areas open for irrigation.  

(*) Duzce is constituted of Cumayeri, Gölyaka,  Gümüşova, Çilimli Kaynarlı, Konur alp,  Beyköy and Boğaziçi districts. 
Besides, 350 big or small industrial organisations incurred damage in the earthquake. Duzce came to fore immediately among provinces within the scope of publication of Incentive Law of no.5084 with its characteristic of geographically advantageous province, it encountered intense interest of investors. The most important advantage of Duzce is its location between two big metropols. This proximity is an advantage on its own. Since it is within the scope of Incentive Law, it is the reason why it is at top place in the list of preference. Duzce benefited from investment demands in the most productive manner and it displayed care in giving priority to investments of companies operating towards exports particularly in a manner not to be effected from domestic crisis.
Though established in 1996, Organised Industrial Zone to which only a small segment is assigned is completely full. Currently, assignment is made to around 60 factories in 1.OSB, 26 of these factories are operative, 12 have their construction completed. Construction of remaining factories continue rapidly. When all of 1.OSB becomes operative, about 7-8 thousand people will have been employed.
After 5084, 376 companies in various sectors made application to make investment in Duzce OSB Zone.  Duzce Organised Industrial Zone was established on an area of 173 hectares in 1996 and 63 Industrial Parcels were planned from among them. 66 companies in 22 different sectors were included in Duzce OSB. Intense demand after incentive led to requirement of establishing a second OSB and soon, no place was left to assign in II.OSB registered by the Ministry of Public Works.  
Location selection works were completed in 2004 for Duzce II. OSB, after having completed registration procedures by the Ministry of Industry and Trade in 2005, it was established on an area of 81 hectares. Assignment of 10 industrial parcels to foreigners was completed. An important part of highly important investments outside Organised Industrial Zones are currently in operative status.
Duzce is being a transitional point, transportation sector is at a non-negligible level. The service of goods and human transportation brought about by it, holds an important place. The number of facilities where transportation sector will receive service on highway (TEM) is intense. For the fact that it has been the only transition besides highway and it has recreational location characteristics, it posed importance and intensity increased even more. Very high amount of economic input is provided with this activity.

3.3.  Evaluations Regarding Future Economic Structure  
In evaluations made by employing Economic Base Theory  it is derived that there will be changes in sector workforce composition during planning period (in the year 2020) in Bolu Province.  (Friedmann, J., Forum for Planning Education, Norway, Seminars on Planning Theory, Troms , August 20‑22, 1993.  Also University of Bergen)
The list of largest three sectors arising as Agriculture, Social Services and Manufacturing Industry in 1990’s, will change in 2020 as Agriculture, Commerce/Tourism and Manufacturing Industry (Table 2).  
Table  2. Sector Workforce Shifts During Plan Period
219 300
% 41.11
% 0.07
% 15.63
% 01.41
% 04.4
% 15.87
% 01.01
% 01.19
% 04.21
% 13.29

% 100.00

Share of agriculture within employment will fall from 66% to 41% in 2020. Availability of forest sources of the province, irrigation projects on productive valleys and industrial plant production, specialisation across the country like poultry farming and finally lack of alternative for the sector in areas with low access put agriculture in the forefront.   
Development in Commerce/Tourism sector should be considered very natural. Commerce is an important sector when looked at tendencies of Bolu within 1970-1990 period. It is clear that this sector will develop further with new transportation connections and increase its relations with two large metropolis even further.  
On the other hand, Bolu will be able to present its unique beauty to tourism sector with slight structuring and it will motivate its potential more effectively.
Developments in the manufacturing industry, location preference tendencies of industries of metropolitan origin in particular and attitudes of local investors in the Province are likely to become the reason of such development.  
3.4. Upper Scale Plan Decisions and Proposals Regarding Prevention of Industrial and Environmental Problems In the Face of Industrial and Urban Developments
1/100 000 Scale Bolu Province Environmental Master Plan includes in principle the decision of development of all industrial enterprises in formal and organised industrial areas. In location selection, refraining from agricultural areas is important. In “Isıklar Dam Protection Line” to be used in the project for provision of water to Ankara, attention is paid particularly for not including industrial facilities.
For continuation of current facilities not discharging their waste water to any treatment facility, the condition of establishing technology intense advanced filthy water treatment facilities is required.
Master Plan decisions of Bolu Province for the sustainable urban and environment are in the following articles:

1. Requests for an industrial location; will be directed to current industrial and/or organised industrial zones with the purpose of supporting principal protection decisions of plan when required, evaluated in industrial planning areas. (1/100 000 Scale Environmental Master Plan Article IV.1.8)
2. Realisation of specialised industrial zones, detailed determination of supervision order and environmental measures will be provided in parallel with opinions of relevant organisations and institutions and in consideration of natural thresholds with the purpose examining, evaluating possible requests in accordance with conditions of this plan and taking polluting industrial types under control. (EMP /Article IV.1.9)
3. Decisions will be formed regarding obligation to build treatment facilities in these regions with the purpose of prevention of environmental pollution problems likely to emerge in current organised industrial zones. (EPM/Art.IV.1.10)
4. Formation of small and medium scale industrial zones to support organised industrial zones will be provided. EPM/ (Art.IV.1.12)
5. Direction of industry towards high technology will be encouraged in Urban Development Region, in industrial areas not yet opened to use; decisions regarding excessive accumulation of industry at certain points of industry and settlements, will be supported by forming new non-housing urban utilisation areas. Remediation of industrial areas, taking measures to prevent environmental pollution and formation of important wastewater treatment facilities are necessary. (EPM/Art.IV.1.21)
6. Regarding use of sources determined as drinking and utilisation water, rules of “Water Pollution Control Regulation” not contravening to “1/100 000 Scale Bolu Province Environmental Master Plan and Implementation Rules” are applicable. Opinion of State Water Works General Directorate must be obtained for any type of building formation in the vicinity of these water sources. (EPM/Art. V.13)
7. Waste water of tourism facilities, public education and recreation facilities and housing settlements to be realised collectively will be connected to waste water networks if any. In places with no filthy water network, it is mandatory that waste water treatment system is established and operated. No discharge can be made without increasing waste water due to standards and building utilisation permission can not be given without realising the treatment system in question. (EPM/Art. V.16)
8. Waste Management Plan works within the limits of Environmental Master Plan will be completed by related Ministries, Governorships and Municipalities, then procedures will be performed accordingly. Current wild waste storage fields will be rehabilitated under this management plan (EPM/Art.V.19)
Small industrial sites should be supported in having treatment facility, if this is not possible with respect to settlement size, obligation to connect sites to filthy water treatment facilityshould be introduced very urgently.    
In these areas, “General Hygiene Law” no.1593 and “Non-Hygienic Institutions Statute” published in the Official Gazette of no.22496 dated 26.09.1995 should be implemented.    
While sub-scale plans are made in areas where winged and other animal reproduction facilities become intense, wild waste storage areas will be determined for these facilities with the participation of relevant organisations and institutions (EPM/Art.V.20).

  1. Bolu Province Environmental Master Plan (1/100 000) (Bolu Province Economic, Socio-Cultural, Locational Development Design Planning), Plan Report and Plan Rules, 2007, (in cooperation with UTTA & Semra Kutluay Planning Office)
  2. Duzce Urban Development Sub-Region 1/100 000, 1/25 000 Scale Environmental Master Plan (Bolu Governorship Public Works Settlement Department / Duzce Governorship)
  3. Duzce, City of Industry, Agriculture, Tourism and University, Anatolia Conversations, Büyük, M. 2008.
  4. Duzce Province Industrial Data 2008, Duzce Province Chamber of Industry and Trade.
  5. Bolu Province Industrial Data 2008, Bolu Province Chamber of Industry and Trade.
  6. Bolu and Duzce Chamber of Industry and Trade Operations, 2007-2008, Pps Presentation.
  7. Bolu and Duzce Chambers of Industry and Trade Capacity Reports.
  8. Duzce Organised Industrial Zone Information Meeting Reports (2007), Duzce Organised Industrial Zone Department
  9. TUNCER, M., 2000, “Planning Future”, World Urban Day 24. Colloquium, TMMOB Chamber of Urban Planners, Izmir Advanced Technology Institute (İYTE) and Dokuz Eylul University (DEU) Urban and Regional Planning Dept.: “Corporate Structure of Planning in Future” Submitted Declaration: “SOME OPINIONS REGARDING REGIONAL, URBAN PLANNING IN TURKEY AND URGAN DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS”. TMMOB Chamber of City Planners. November 2001, Leda Ajans, Ank.

Metin Kutusu:   


¥”Bolu Province 1/100 000 Scale Economic, Socio-Cultural, Location Development Design and 1/25 000 Scale Environmental Master Planning  prepared by Governorship of Bolu, P.1 .
© Bolu Environmental and Forestry Department Year 2007 Operations Reports. 

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