Monday, January 11, 2010
ISTANBUL EARTHQUAKE CREATE URBAN AND ENVIROMENTAL PROBLEMS CASE: BOLU PROVINCE
ISTANBUL EARTHQUAKE CREATE URBAN AND ENVIROMENTAL PROBLEMS CASE: BOLU
Keywords: Bolu, Duzce, Marmara Earthquake, Sectoral Development, Industry, Environmental Problems, Environmental Master Plan
Order of Authors: Mehmet Tuncer(**), Prof.Dr.; Arda YALCUK, Assoc.prof. (*)
*Abant İzzet Baysal University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Gölkoy-Bolu Turkey,
Phone: +90 374 2541000, Fax:+ 90 374 2534558, E-mail: email@example.com
** Abant İzzet Baysal University, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Architecture Department, Gölkoy-Bolu, Turkey,
Phone: + 90 374 254 1000, Fax: +90 374 2534558 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
In this study environmental and urban pressures arising in the Province of Duzce and Bolu in the aftermath of the biggest earthquake occurred in Adapazarı, Kocaeli, Golcuk segment of Northern Anatolia Fault (NAF) Line on 17 August 1999, and continued in the magnitude of Ms=7.4 under Richter scale and for approximately 45-50 seconds are examined. After the earthquake demands regarding particularly housing, industry and storage are appeared. People moved from Kocaeli Region to Bolu Province, but Bolu was unprepared and unplanned for these movements, due to which environmental problems have arisen. In this study these demands, arising problems and precautions taken to cure these problems are also examined. The aim of this paper is to estimate potential future environmental problems in Duzce and Bolu and determine precautions required to be taken.
Keywords: Bolu, Duzce, Marmara Earthquake, Sectoral Development, Industry,
Environmental Problems, Environmental Master Plan
The Earthquake influenced the entire Marmara Region and cities like Duzce and Bolu
located on the eastern extension of NAF also in Istanbul, Izmit and Adapazarı. One branch of the North Anatolia Fault lay down towards from Karacasu to Dokurcan. Earthquake occured at 1994 produced with this branch. The fault of North-west of the Bolu Plain from Elmalı environs, towards to the Kaynaslı ve Düzce is responsible of earthquake of 1999, 12 November. Those mentioned two fault suspected to be united to create an earthquake at the west end of Bolu Plain. More than 20 000 people died in this catastrophic earthquake. After the earthquake urban demands such as housing, industry, storage, etc. were oriented to cities like Duzce and Bolu connected directly to metropolitan cities through TEM highway.
Particularly after the declaration of the Province of Duzce as “Province of Priority in Development”, it is estimated that industrial development in this province is higher compared to the province of Bolu, which, generally speaking, displayed a growth rate lower than the average of Turkey in the period 1970-1990. Between 1990-2000, it is observed that while this development is oriented to Duzce after being declared as Province in Bolu, this development was rather too slow.
While, in that period, the total annual increase rate of increase in employment was 0.020 in
Turkey for the said period, this value was realised as 0.015 for the province of Bolu.
Industries in which the province of Bolu manifested an increase in employment higher than
that of Turkey average were EGW (Electricity, Gas, Water), Financial Organisations and
Social Services. This development resulted from public sector employment.
Besides, the rise in employment within the Construction Sector is same as Turkey’s average
and Manufacturing Industry Sector is very close to Turkey’s average. Figures indicate that
public sector invested in services, while private sector made investment in activities
oriented towards production chiefly in manufacturing industry.
Although the largest sector development tendency in the province of Bolu is in EGW sector;
developments in these sectors are caused by labour shifts between institutions, as
Furthermore, the largest development with respect to work force was seen in the Banking
Sector with a value of 334 for the year 1990 if we take the value for 1970 as 100. This sector
is followed in turn by Commerce, Construction, Social Services and Manufacturing Industry.
The Province of Bolu total workforce increase index for 1970-1990 period1 is estimated as
134 as of the year 1990*.
The province of Bolu has had a workforce growth higher than provinces of Western Black
Sea Region (WBR) in the period between 1970 and1990. In fact regional total workforce
increase index was found to be 129 as of 1990 in the mentioned period. This value is smaller
than the index for Bolu province.
In evaluations made with respect to sectors, Bolu manufacturing industry work force
increase index was observed to be at a figure of 210, higher than the value of 145, WBR
manufacturing industry index. In other words, Bolu manufacturing industry developed
faster than the Region through 1970-1990 periods. On the contrary, the growth in
agricultural sector was below WBR average. On the other hand, in presentations of urban
services which could be named as service sector other than Transport-Communication-
Storage (TCS) service, indexes for the Province of Bolu turned out to be higher than
regional values. This situation indicated that Province of Bolu can be interpreted as having
BOLU PROVINCE ENVIRONMENTAL MASTER PLAN (1/100 000) (Bolu Province Economic, Socio-Cultural, Locational
Development Design Planning), Plan Report and Plan Rules, 2007, (in cooperation with UTTA & Semra Kutluay Planning
varied its economy with respect to WBR, and grew higher than the Region in which it was
2. Material and Method
In this study, environmental data, social-economic data, population data regarding the
provinces of Bolu and Duzce and statistical data for Organised Industrial Zones were used.
Furthermore, reports of upper scale planning reports and planning rules are benefited
1/100 000 Scaled Plans is a planning scale including “STRATEGIES”, “MACRO TARGET and
DECISIONS”. This plan could be regarded as “CONSTITUTION” of all other plans.
Environmental Arrangement Planning works of Bolu Province started in 1998, but paused
for about two years following great damage and destruction caused by August 1999
Marmara and November 1999 Duzce earthquakes. After the earthquake, Bolu and Duzce
were separated and they became two separate provinces. Provincial Environmental Master
Plan that was launched in integration by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement was
requested to be separated as two different provinces (Plan 1).
Under the Bolu Province Environmental Master Plan (2020) Decisions and Implementation
Rules (1/100 000) Report, the targets of Environmental Master Plan are determined asa;
· Determination of planning targets and strategies of the province,
· Improving development targets of different sectors in a healthy environment in the
context of sustainability by safeguarding nature, historical and cultural values of the
a Bolu Province 1/100 000 Scale Economic, Socio-Cultural, Location Development Design and 1/25 000 Scale Environmental Master
Planning prepared by Governorship of Bolu, P.1 .
· Laying the foundation for planning decisions to become an input to any type of physical
plans to be prepared at lower scale.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Examination of Relations Between Population Development, Environment and Industry
in Bolu Province
In Bolu, overall populations is seen to have increased by 2.27 times and reached 553 022
between 1935-2000. Moreover, while the rate of urban population to overall population was
11,5% in 1935, this rate reached 48% in 2000. While the rate of urban population to overall
population remained constant at 11,5% between 1935-1950, this rate increased to 16% in
1960, 21% in 1970, 24% in 1980, jumped to 38% in 1990 and rose to 48% in 2000.
After building of Organised Industrial Zone (OIZ) established on an area of 73 hectares on E5
highway in 1983, advantages like non-disposal of efficient agricultural areas, establishment
of joint filtration facilities and availability of infrastructure facilities are provided.
Organised Industrial Zone was is established with the credit support of the Ministry of
Industry and Trade by Bolu Provincial Special Administration, Bolu Municipality and Bolu
Chamber of Commerce and Industry. 61 parcels are available on it. 46 of 51 factories that are
established are actively in operation. Activities are under way in the region in the sectors of
wood, metal, electricity, oily soya, machinery, beet cleaning, glass, plastic joinery,
chemicals, polyurethane and clothing. About 2.400 persons are employed in the region and
the total capacity of employment is around 4.000 persons. Though OIZ is not filled up, some
industries are choosing location on agricultural land; therefore, environmental problems
According to 2000 general population census held in 2000 following 1999 earthquake, it is
seen that emigration from the province of Bolu was higher than immigration into Bolu, in
other words immigration was around (-10%). According to results of Address Based
Population Registry System, while Bolu is the only province whose population didn’t
increase, some of its villages’ population passed their county’s population. Population of
Bolu which was 270.650 in 2000 Population Census was announced as 270.417 in 2007 census.
Bolu became the only province with a decreasing population across the country. In this
context; changes were observed in environmental problems of the Province. These
problems are discussed below in brief.
a. Water Pollution: Büyüksu covering Bolu valley from one end to the other, underground
water displaying extensive coverage with its branches, Gölköy Dam built for agricultural
irrigation and many sources are available. Besides, there are recreation areas like Abant,
Gölcük and Yedigöller outside study area. Among them Abant feeds Büyüksu.
On Bolu Valley, factories largely in food industry (poultry, potato, etc.) built having chosen
location in Organised Industrial Zone are leaving their wastes to Büyüksu River either
directly or indirectly via side rivers. Moreover, Bolu urban sewage system pollutes Büyüksu
on an important scale. In addition to all these, smoke and cement dust coming from
chimney of Cement Factory are largely polluting environment.
Construction of Bolu province sewage network was completed in 1980 and its approximate
length was 350 kilometers. Waste water collected on eastern and western parts coasts of the
city is being discharged into Büyüksu river with two main collectors. Besides, waste water
of Karacasu Municipality is being discharged to Büyüksu in the same region with a separate
collector. A new treatment facility was constructed on the road to Karacasu Village in the
south of Bolu. Water sources that became subject to pollution in years 2005-2006 and
reasons of their pollution are summarized in the Table 1.
Reasons of pollution arising from waste water are given belowb.
1. Insufficient sewage system.
2. Insufficient treatment of domestic waste water in location.
3. Insufficiency of collective treatment in small industries.
4. Failure to build sewage holes in a healthy manner and discharge of this waste
haphazardly with sewage truck.
5. Uncontrolled use of pesticides.
Problems caused by waste water in receiving environment; can be listed as coming up with
physical and chemical changes of water in physical and chemical characteristics, causing
production of insects and harmful living things and threatening to the lives of livings in
As a measure for problems in this context, build-up and renewal of sewage network, use of
sewage in settlement centre, keeping industrial waste subject to treatment, realisation of
sufficiently frequent controls and providing discharge limits of enterprises according to the
Regulation of Prevention of Water Pollution (2004) to obtain permission can be listed. Bolu
Municipality connected waste water of factories to main waste-water system of City in
2007-2008. Therefore, a comprehensive solution will be provided to pollution of Büyüksu
River and many floods. Within the scope of infrastructure of Organised Industrial Zone,
sewage, rain water, drinking water and roads were completed, and asphalt coating was
b Bolu Environmental and Forestry Department Year 2007 Operations Reports.
made. Within the Organised Industrial Zone, facilities including chemical waste and
polluting their environment and nature, including chemical waste are not included in
parcel and assignment stage.
b. Air Pollution: As of end 2006, among 40 industrial organisation established within the
borders of Bolu Province, the number of those with treatment facilities is 13. Number of
organisation with permission for emission from chimney is 12. These results indicate that
about 33% of industrial organisations are not continuing their operation in the direction to
decrease environmental pollution. The number of facilities with respect to field of
operation within provincial borders was shown in Figure 1.
In 2006-2007 winter seasons, the province of Bolu took part among provinces of First Group
Polluted provinces with respect to Air Pollution. Use of high quality coal was attempted to
be made widespread with the purpose of decreasing pollution, and frequent controls were
made by Environment Forestry Provincial Department. The most definite solution for
decreasing this pollution is thought to be introduction of natural gas, and first initiatives
were made by entering into natural gas line. In summer of 2008 the natural gas pipes
construction was begun.
c. Solid Wastes:
When Bolu is considered in terms of solid waste, average amount of solid waste per person
in the province where population is 84 000 (2005-2006) is 1.90 kg/day. Average amount of
collected solid waste is 159 tons/day. Waste composition is 40% organic, 21% plastic, 13%
glass, 6% paper, etc. Current disposal method is irregular storage, but Bolu has gained a
modern facility with the operation of regular storage field in 2007. By means of this facility,
incineration of solid wastes thereby transformation into energy is provided.
3.2. Duzce Province Sector Development Tendencies
Duzce, is a province that lived destructive effect of earthquakes which happened in 1999, of
which urban life went through great change for having passed into provincial status.
Particularly the second earthquake centered on Duzce-Kaynaslı affected the industry of
province, by causing production losses and high rate of unemployment due to physical
damage and closed down work-places. While the population of centre was around 80.000
before earthquake, it has fallen down to 60.000 after the earthquake. However, as a province
receiving immigration very fast, it seems inescapable that the population of Duzce will rise
During the earthquake, 3.837 workplaces big or small were demolished, 2.572 workplaces
were damaged at medium level, while 1.606 workplaces were slightly damaged making a
total of 8.016 damaged work-places.
Duzce is composed of county centres of Cumayeri, Gölyaka, Gümüsova and Çilimli and
districts of Kaynaslı, Konuralp, Beyköy and Boğaziçi. Estimated population for the year 2020
of the Duzce Province where urban activities will develop and vary most, is at the level of
235 000 persons. Certainly, this depends to some extent on realisation of external factors
like railway. Estimated population size was shown in Table 2.
Duzce came to fore immediately among provinces with the publication of Incentive Law
numbered 5084d, and with its characteristic of geographically advantageous province, it
d LAW of SUPPORTING INVESTMENT and EMPLOYMENT No: 5084, published in the Official Gazette of no. 25819 dated
encountered intense interest of investors. The most important advantage of Duzce is its
location between two big metropolises. This proximity is an advantage on its own. Since it
is within the scope of Incentive Law, it is the reason why it is at the top of the list of
preference. Duzce benefited from investment demands in the most productive manner, and
it displayed care in giving priority to investments of companies operating towards exports
particularly in a manner not to be effected from domestic crisis.
Advantages Introduced By Incentive Law of no.5084:
• Revenue Tax deducted from wages of workers employed by investors is 100%
exempt with on condition that they recruit at least 30 workers.
• SSK employer share of workers employed by investors is 100% exempt with on
condition that they recruit at least 30 workers.
• There is an electricity discount in the rate of 20% if investors recruit at least 30
workers, with an addition of 0,55 for each additional worker, in 50% maximum.
• If investors employ at least 30 workers for a period of 5 years, land designation is
made in our region with no cost.
• In case Incentive certificate is obtained, 100% VAT discount and Customs tax
• Supports like KOSGEB Project, qualified personnel, fair.
• Consultancy and technical support from local administrations and Professional
• Employing qualified intermediate personnel from Educational Institutions.
After 5084, 376 companies in various sectors made application to make investment in Duzce
OIZ Zone. Duzce Organised Industrial Zone was established on an area of 173 hectares in
1996, and 63 Industrial Parcels were planned on this place. 66 companies in 22 different
sectors were included in Duzce OIZ. Intense demand after incentive led to requirement of
establishing a second OIZ and soon, no place was left to assign in II.OIZ registered by the
Ministry of Public Works. Location selection works were completed in 2004 for Duzce II.
OIZ, after having completed registration procedures by the Ministry of Industry and Trade
in 2005, it was established on an area of 81 hectares. Assignment of 10 industrial parcels to
foreigners was completed. An important part of highly important investments outside
Organised Industrial Zones are currently in operative status.
Duzce is being a transitional point, transportation sector is at a non-negligible great level.
The service of goods and human transportation developed with brought about by it, holds
an important place. The number of facilities which transportation sector will receive use
while travelling is many. service on highway (TEM) is intense. For the fact that it has been
the only transition besides highway and it has recreational location characteristics, it posed
importance and intensity increased even more. High amount of economic input is provided
with this activity.
3. Evaluations Regarding Future Economic Structure
In evaluations made by employing Economic Base Theory (Friedmann, J.,1993) it is found
out that there will be changes in sector workforce composition during planning period (in
the year 2020) in Bolu Province
The list of largest three sectors arising as Agriculture, Social Services and Manufacturing
Industry in 1990’s, will change in 2020 as Agriculture, Commerce/Tourism and
Manufacturing., which is shown in Figure 2.
Share of agriculture within employment will fall from 66% to 41% in 2020. Specialisation
across the country like poultry farming and finally lack of alternative for the sector in areas
with low access put agriculture in the forefront.
Development in Commerce/Tourism sector should be considered very natural. Commerce is
an important sector when looked at tendencies of Bolu within 1970-1990 period. It is clear
that this sector will develop further with new transportation connections and increase its
relations with two large metropolises even further.
On the other hand, Bolu will be able to present its unique beauty to tourism sector with
slight structuring and it will motivate its potential more effectively.
Developments in the manufacturing industry, location preference tendencies of industries
of metropolitan origin in particular and attitudes of local investors in the Province are
likely to become the reason of such development.
3.4. Upper Scale Plan Decisions and Proposals Regarding Prevention of Industrial and
Environmental Problems In the Face of Industrial and Urban Developments
1/100 000 Scaled Bolu Province Environmental Master Plan (EMP) includes, in principle, the
decision of development of all industrial enterprises in formal and organised industrial
areas. In location selection, refraining from agricultural areas is important. In “Isıklar Dam
Protection Line” to be used in the project for providing water to Ankara, attention is paid
particularly for not including industrial facilities.
For continuation of current facilities not discharging their waste water to any treatment
facility, the condition of establishing technology intense filthy water treatment facilities is
Master Plan decisions of Bolu Province for the sustainable urban and environment are in
the following articles:
1. Requests for an industrial location will be directed to current industrial and/or organised
industrial zones with the purpose of supporting principal protection decisions of plan when
required, evaluated in industrial planning areas. (1/100 000 Scaled Environmental Master
Plan Article IV.1.8)
2. Realisation of specialised industrial zones, detailed determination of supervision order
and environmental measures will be provided in parallel with opinions of relevant
organisations and institutions and in consideration of natural thresholds with the purpose
examining, evaluating possible requests and taking polluting industrial types under control
in accordance with provisions of this plan. (EMP /Article IV.1.9)
3. Decisions will be formed regarding obligation to build treatment facilities in these regions
with the purpose of preventing environmental pollution problems likely to emerge in
current organised industrial zones. (EPM/Art.IV.1.10)
4. Formation of small and medium scale industrial zones to support organised industrial
zones will be provided. EPM/ (Art.IV.1.12)
5. Direction of industry towards high technology will be encouraged in Urban Development
Region, in industrial areas not yet opened to use; decisions regarding excessive
accumulation of industry at certain points of industry and settlements, will be supported by
forming new non-housing urban utilisation areas. Remediation of industrial areas, taking
measures to prevent environmental pollution and formation of important wastewater
treatment facilities are necessary. (EPM/Art.IV.1.21)
6. Regarding use of sources determined as drinking and utilisation water, rules of “Water
Pollution Control Regulation” not contravening to “1/100 000 Scaled Bolu Province
Environmental Master Plan and Implementation Rules” are applicable. Opinion of State
Water Works General Directorate must be obtained for any type of building formation in
the vicinity of these water sources. (EPM/Art. V.13)
7. Waste water of tourism facilities, public education and recreation facilities and housing
settlements to be realised collectively will be connected to waste water networks if any. In
places with no filthy water network, it is mandatory that waste water treatment system is
established and operated. No discharge can be made without treatment waste water by 90
percent, and building utilisation permission can not be given without realising the
treatment system in question. (EPM/Art. V.16)
8. Waste Management Plan works within the limits of Environmental Master Plan will be
completed by related Ministries, Governorships and Municipalities, then procedures will be
performed accordingly. Current wild waste storage fields will be rehabilitated under this
management plan (EPM/Art.V.19)
Small industrial sites should be supported in having treatment facility, if this is not possible
with respect to settlement size, obligation to connect sites to waste water treatment facility
should be introduced very urgently.
In these areas, “General Hygiene Law” no.1593 and “Non-Hygienic Institutions Statute”
published in the Official Gazette of no.22496 dated 26.09.1995 should be implemented.
9. While sub-scaled plans are made in areas where winged and other animal reproduction
facilities become intense, wild waste storage areas will be determined for these facilities
with the participation of relevant organisations and institutions (EPM/Art.V.20).
1. BOLU PROVINCE ENVIRONMENTAL MASTER PLAN (1/100 000) (Bolu Province
Economic, Socio-Cultural, Locational Development Design Planning), Plan Report and
Plan Rules, 2007, (in cooperation with UTTA & Semra Kutluay Planning Office)
2. DUZCE URBAN DEVELOPMENT SUB-REGION 1/100 000, 1/25 000 SCALED
ENVIRONMENTAL MASTER PLAN (Bolu Governorship Public Works Settlement
Department / Duzce Governorship)
3. Büyük, M., DUZCE, CITY OF INDUSTRY, AGRICULTURE, TOURISM AND UNIVERSITY,
Anatolia Conversations, 2008.
4. DUZCE PROVINCE INDUSTRIAL DATA, (2008), Duzce Province Chamber of Industry
5. BOLU PROVINCE INDUSTRIAL DATA 2008, Bolu Province Chamber of Industry and
6. BOLU AND DUZCE CHAMBER OF INDUSTRY AND TRADE OPERATIONS, 2007-2008, Pps
7. BOLU AND DUZCE CHAMBERS OF. TRADE (2007), Industry and Trade Capacity Reports.
8. DUZCE ORGANISED INDUSTRIAL ZONE INFORMATION MEETING REPORTS (2007),
Duzce Organised Industrial Zone Department
9. Friedmann, J.,(1993), Forum for Planning Education, Norway, Seminars on Planning
Theory, Troms, August 20-22, University of Bergen
10. GENERAL HYGIENE LAW No:1593 and “Non-Hygienic Institutions Statute” published
in the Official Gazette of no.22496 dated 26.09.1995
11. LAW of SUPPORTING INVESTMENT and EMPLOYMENT No: 5084, published in the
Official Gazette of no. 25819 dated 18.05.2005.
12. Tuncer, M., (2001), SOME OPINIONS REGARDING REGIONAL, URBAN PLANNING IN
TURKEY AND URGAN DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS,
“Planning Future”, World Urban Day 24. Colloquium, TMMOB Chamber of Urban
Planners, Leda Ajans, Ankara-Turkey
Number of Industry
Number of Industry
Figure 1. Changes of the Number of Facilities in Sectors With Regard to 2006-
2007 Operation Report
Plan 1: BOLU PROVINCE 1/100 000 SCALED ENVIRONMENTAL MASTER PLAN (2006)
Table 1. Water Sources and Reasons of Pollution
Water Source Domestic Liquid
Industrial Waste Agricultural Waste
Buyuksu River * * * *
Mudurnu River * * * *
Ulusu River * * * *
Mengen Creek * * * *
Goynuk Creek * * * *
Table 2: Duzce Urban Development Sub-Region Fundamental Characteristics
CHARACTERISTICS AND ACTIONS
360.641 * Specialisation in all urban sectors
234.694 2 882 ha. * Relative development in industrial sector
125.948 * Maximum care to Melen Creek water protection line
and areas open for irrigation.