Mimarlık, Kentsel Tasarım, Şehir Planlama, Bölge Planlama, Arkeoloji, Tarihsel ve Doğal Çevre Korunması.
Architecture, Urban Design, Urban Planning, Regional Planning, Historical Preservation, Archaeology, Natural Environment Preservation.
Tuesday, February 14, 2012
BERGAMA (PERGAMON) ANTIQUE CITY : PRESERVING THE CITY OF CULTURE, ART AND SCIENCE
(PERGAMON) ANTIQUECITY :
PRESERVING THE CITY OF CULTURE,
ART AND SCIENCE
Altar of Pergamon, Turkey (today called as Bergama), its kidnapping to Berlin
at Ottoman time and the struggle for its return, the former Mayor of Bergama,
Sefa Taskin spending the night in front
of the Museum, is known to almost everyone who have a concern in the matter (Figure 1. The Zeus Altar).
Figure 1. THE ZEUS ALTAR OF PERGAMON (BERLIN PERGAMON MUSEUM)
even today, a lot of valuable archaeological pieces are being used as collected
material in buildings in Bergama.
A small museum could be filled with the pieces that a keen eye would notice in Bergama streets. The
traditional pattern and new developments are intermingled today in Bergama, and the antique
period remains are all but vanished (Figure
Figure 2. Bergama (Pergamon) AntiqueCity
(DEUTSCHEN ARCHEAOLOGY INSTITUT
urban and archaeological sites of Bergama, that is, the historical city that
has been mentioned with admiration, researched and put into writing, and
praised by scientists, archaeologists, architectures, art historians, city
planners, sculptors and the like for more than two thousand years, faces the
threat of destruction today in places… (View
1. The Panoramic Reconstruction of Bergama)
·The extraction of
part of the town center, which was initially in the historical site, from the site and the preparation of a new
implementation plan, with a trend of denser building in that parts,
buildings in the archaeological sites merged with the town, especially around
the Musalla Hill,
·And the military
land standing over archaeological remains,
brought the Selçuklu and Ottoman Period traditional urban patterns and the two
most important Roman Period theatres to the fringe of annihilation.
of these theatres has been built in a form rarely encountered in Anatolia; like those theatres in Side and Aspendos, it
has been built on a completely artificial basis with no natural supports.
Another feature of this theatre is that it has been built on vaults set upon a
stream and that, in times, the stream had been stopped and used for water
sports and shows.
other theatre has been named Viran Kapı;
olive trees have taken root in its caveat and it is struggling to protect its
form from the shantytown buildings. The land surrounding these theatres have
completely come under the reign of illegal building, urban infrastructure
services like roads, water and electricity have been provided and the path to
implementation reform title-deeds being issued has been opened. (Figure 3. The Antique Theatre)
Figure 3. PERGAMONS’ ACROPOLIS and ANTIQUE THEATRE
gravest danger to Bergama
arises from the implementation plan currently in force, which has been prepared
for the renovation of the town and which also contains the greater part of the
traditional pattern (Figure 4. The Bergama Revised
Implementation Plan (1/1000). In this plan, the Selçuk and Ottoman Period
historical urban pattern of Bergama
being completely disregarded, new roads unfitting the pattern have been
proposed and some have been built, and large plots of land in conflict with the
traditional plot and building order, plus high (4-5 story) buildings have been
proposed as well. In accordance with the decisions of this plan, an important
street has been built in the town center, and tearing down old Bergaman houses,
permits have been given for new buildings. Within the town, especially around
the traditional city center, buildings fitting this plan have started climbing
high and the impressive Acropolis panorama from the İzmir road have been
partially obscured. And when the city is viewed from the Acropolis, unfortunately,
what is seen is that, the panorama and silhouette of the 2000-year-old town has
been disfigured by ugly concrete blocks and the city identity has begun to be
Figure 4. The Bergama
Revised Implementation Plan (1/1000)
the urban historical site has been narrowed down to the boundaries of the
historical city center, the implementation plan which is being applied in the
areas outside this region will cause the Bergama historical town pattern and
town identity to be gradually lost. The “Protection Plan”, which is being
prepared in Bergama
by the Ministry of Culture but not in force yet could check only some part of
this implementation plan, and the number of allowed stories have been lowered.
However, the remaining parts should be reconsidered as well, in a way so as to
preserve and improve the city pattern and keeping the silhouettes in mind.
danger is for the Serapis Temple (Kızıl
one of the greatest temples of Anatolia, considered to be one of the most
important symbols of the Pax Romana Period in Anatolia, which has been built
for Egyptian gods and been converted to a Basilica in the Byzantian Period, and
for the vault (tunnel) that the temple
is built on. The Bergama Stream (Selinus) have been diverted to a tunnel
approximately 200 m. to the east with the use of the temple and the social and
religious buildings surrounding it; and a harmony has been created with
downtown (Figure 5 . Kızıl Avlu (SerapisTemple at The end of 19Th
Century). This part of Bergama has been standing
for centuries and is known as the “Ne Yerde, Ne Gökte
District”. However, the Kozak-Bergama-Soma
Road going next to the Kızıl Avlu upon this
vault-tunnel and the load and the vibrations caused by the recently-increased
heavy-vehicle traffic is damaging this building, which has stood for 2000
years, significantly. It can even be remarked that the vault-tunnel is in
danger of caving in. It is required that this route be shifted further south,
be cleared of heavy-vehicle traffic, and that a new bridge be built on the
Bergama Stream south-east of the town, arranging the Kızıl Avlu and its
proximity as a pedestrian-concentrated “Open-Air
Museum” (Figure 6. Kızıl Avlu (SerapisTemple) Today).
Figure 5 . KIZIL
AVLU (SERAPISTEMPLE) (1840)
the city is toured, it can be observed that many pieces remaining from antique
periods are in use as collected material. Considering that the Roman period Bergama was a magnificent
city with a population of 250000, and that the Selçuk and Ottoman city has been
established entirely over this old town, it can be deduced that Hellenistic
Period and Roman Period urban remains are lying under the areas that have been
developed, at least up to the Republican Period. Keeping in mind that
excavations by eliminating urban buildings are impossible, the importance of
the foundation excavations of each new building for archaeology and art history
is revealed. Actually, in the recent years, the RomanTheatre and Odeon on Hisar Street in Ankara has been exposed in
such a building foundation excavation, and since it was in the “Museum-Controlled Region”, it has been
publicized and the necessary precautions taken instantly and it was thus saved
from destruction. Had there been no controlled excavation, as in many other
locations, a 6-story building would now be rising on this theatre as well!
Figure 6. KIZIL AVLU
than the Bergama Archaeological Sites, the excavations for the new buildings in
the city should also be controlled, and evaluating every bit of data that can
come out of that, the Hellenistic and Roman Period plan of the city should be
created. The first of such investigations has been conducted by Carl Humann in
1879 Excavations in the areas determined from the better maps, with 1/2500
scale and dated 1926 that show the area in which the Ottoman City pattern was
spread, should be museum controlled. Even the construction and exhibition of
the reconstruction model of the city and would reveal the magnificence of the
city in the antique ages better (Figure
7. Pergamon Acropolis Reconstruction Drawing).
TOWARDS THE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PROBLEMS
II.1. LEGAL AND
the matter of “Preservation of the
Historical Environment”, the Central Administration and the Local
Administrations should, together and in co-operation, develop deep-rooted
administrative, legal, economical and financial solution paths. The Central
Administration and Local Administrations have been given certain duties and
authorities with the Preservation of Cultural and Natural Assets Law (numbered
2863and 3386), the Implementation Law (3194), and the Municipalities Law (1580)
on the matter of the preservation of the historical environment.
it is not possible to say that in particular the local administrations are
utilising these points of authority completely and correctly. The problems of
historical environment occur in ways specific to each region. Thus, above all,
the local administration is responsible for all kinds of local service. The
local administrations are defined as public establishments “that meet the common and local needs of the people”. The two
basic measures in the definition are that there are “common needs” of the people and that these needs are “local”.
problems of the historical environment are also of the “local and common”
problems. Hence, it can be said that the problem of preserving the historical
environment is firstly the problem of the local administration. The
municipalities are primarily responsible for regulating urban life. The
municipality legislations have provided the municipalities with significant
possibilities with the goal of regulating the urban life environment. Among
these possibilities are the preparation of administrative regulating texts,
applying the municipality penalty system and procedures like permissions and
articles in the 1930 dated and 1580 numbered Municipality Law has given the
municipalities important authority and duties on preservation, environment
arrangements and reforms. Although this law has lost its applicability in
today’s conditions, it nonetheless is in force until a new local administration
reform is realised.
articles numbered 15/35, 19, 115 and 159
impose upon the municipalities important duties about the preservation of the
no. 19 gives the municipalities the authorities of making all kinds of advances
for easing urban life, make prohibitions and impose penalties upon those that
do not follow the prohibitions. Based upon this authority, the Municipalities
may bring rules about the functioning of controllers, which are the legal force
of municipalities, with the “Controller Regulations” they prepare. However,
today the controller regulations are little more than lists of prohibitions.
controller regulations should determine the urban standard, principles, and
requisites of living. A “Historical
Environment Controller” force, equipped with the authority of checking and
controlling issues like buildings in historical environments, repairs without
permission, checking that the repairs are in accordance with the permit, and
checking that the building application type fits the plan and the quality of
the environment, should be formed; and should work locally in synchronisation
with the Municipality Implementation Departments. These controllers could also
be given a general “ENVIRONMENTAL
CONTROLLER” quality by linking them also to basic environmental problems
such as air, water and soil pollution, noise, solid wastes, visual pollution
(notices, signs and plaques), the problems of transport and parking, general
hygiene of cities and green areas, that concern the urban environment closely.
Health Controller Regulations:
Hıfzısıhha (General Public Health) Law, numbered 1593, has given the
Municipalities the right and duty to put out a “Health Controller Regulations”, subject to the condition that it
be approved by the Ministries of Internal Affairs and Health. The Regulation
aims for applying the decisions of the General Hıfzısıhha Law within the
municipality boundaries using the municipality controllers. This regulations,
which is for the urban environment and thus the historical environment which is
an important part of it to be more healthy, should be prepared considering the
standard principles and rules of the requirements of environmental health.
unplanned urbanisation and land speculation lie at the roots of the problems of
the historical environment. The urbanisation phenomenon has been regulated by
the Implementation Laws and the imposed rules are being applied by the
Implementation Regulations in Municipalities. Significant steps could be taken
towards preservation with the addition of articles about the preservation,
reform and improvement of the historical environment.
One of the
most important rights of Municipalities is that of “permitting” businesses that could create undesirable conditions as
regards health during production. The permits, which are documents of
permission for work, also include the work conditions. Only the businesses that
satisfy these conditions are allowed to be initiated and operated. If the
conditions are unsatisfied, the permit is revoked. It is basic that businesses
with the quality of preserving and not harming the historical pattern should be
placed within the historical environment. Checking of this and the control whether
it fits the plan or not could be made during the permit stage of the
the General Hıfzısıhha Law, the I. and II.
Grade Unhealthy Establishments, which are the Unhealthy Establishments that
harm the historical environment, should be prevented from taking place within
historical patterns. The permits of the existing ones should be revoked and
they should be made to move to outside the pattern. And within the
preservation-aimed plans, historical businesses which are harmonious with the
traditional pattern and of traditional quality (carpet-making, kilim-making, handcrafts
etc.) should be placed along with pension, hotel and residence applications.
regulation, whose old name is “Küşat Regulation” and new name is
“Business-Initiating Regulation”, the municipalities have the right to
determine the necessary conditions for the initiation and operation of sites of production. Through this regulation, quite a
large number of production establishments with a negative effect on natural and
historical environment could be put into tight control.
“Building Permit”s and “Residing and Using Permits” should be rearranged in a
way as to provide maintenance and repair for the historical environment. New
buildings and repairs on old ones should be brought into accordance with the
building and repair conditions explained in the Preservation-Aimed Plans and
this should be controlled.
rights mentioned above are still in use in our Municipalities. These rights
could be utilised in an effective way for the preservation of the natural and
historical environment and thus a better urban environment could be created.
municipalities do not have personnel aware of and educated on the matter of the
preservation of the historical environment. The Ankara Greater Municipality has
personnel of much higher quality and expertise in this matter as compared to
the Şanlıurfa and Bergama Municipalities. The insufficiency of personnel brings
about an important limitation on the issues of preservation planning,
application and control in the historical environment.
organisation structure of the municipality should be arranged with a futuristic
outlook, a “Historical Environment Preservation Department” should be
established directly answerable to the mayor and the implementation manager,
and these units should be equipped by related, expertise professionals. The
archaeologist, the art historian, the restoration-expert architect and the city
planner should be the basic positions in these units. Along with the creation
of the units, which will take time and be difficult, the municipalities using
the paths available to them consciously will result in success in the attempts
of preservation and improvement in historical environments. A responsibility
such as leading and providing education for the attempts of the preservation of
the historical environment falls to the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of
Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Buildings and
STRATEGIES FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE HISTORICAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE MUNICIPALITY OF BERGAMA
PRESERVATION POLICIES FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES
done by the mankind in the Bergama Archaeological and Urban Sites and erosion
present a complex bouquet of problems. Along with the erosion of natural forces
such as temperature change, earthquakes, wind and water etc., the centuries of
plundering and damage by the mankind have caused unreplacable losses in the
region. Through internationally accepted methods of excavation, restoration and
preservation (The Venetian Regulations et al.), the abrasion of nature on
archaeological sites and monumental buildings could be delayed.
well-planned and well-executed advertisement and tour program would support the
awareness today on this cultural heritage, which should be preserved for the
should be given so that preservation is realised, the works are kept intact and
exhibited in the best way possible. The most important of these processes is
the prevention of shantytown occupation and illegal buildings within and around
archaeological sites. Blocking multi-storey buildings and controlling the
silhouette are of first importance. In places where the pattern is being
disfigured, precautions should be taken with priority through
“Preservation-Aimed” planning and project works.
the pieces still in the open air and the preservation of pieces on the ground
are significant within the Archaeological Site. The archaeological remains
should be protected, covered with light covers, be removed from the region with
the aim of temporary storage or exhibition, or, where applicable, the work
should be restored according to its original form, following the restoration
principles. By gathering together the architectural structure elements which
have broken off and scattered away from the original building for various
reasons and by anastilosis applications, a sight of intactness would be given
to the AntiqueTown.
“ARCHAEOPARK”, which is included in the Bergama Urban and Archaeological Sites
Preservation-Aimed Implementation Plan, an “Archaeological Master Plan”,
similar to the one having prepared by the Greater Municipality of Ankara,
should be prepared and the reports of excavations, sondages and researches of
various periods should be brought together scientifically.
the “Reconstruction Plan” of the town, the town pattern of the Hellenistic and
Roman periods should be determined for certain, and, following that, detailed
planning and project work should be undertaken according to the principles of
archaeology, restoration, planning, landscape and urban furniture (Figure 8. Carl Human’s Plan of Pergamon)
PRESERVATION POLICIES FOR THE URBAN SITES
The Municipality of Bergama should determine the land and
land plot stocks in public possession (treasury, foundations etc.) within the
municipality bounds and these lands should be used towards the “Preservation-Aimed
Implementation Plan” without being transferred to private possession.
For the end
goal of a healthy control over the town’s development, the municipality should
obtain plots of land within developing residential areas and, creating the
infrastructure of these areas, should produce as many residences as it could;
by assigning plots of land to those people which are resident in the areas
marked for evacuation within archaeological or urban sites and by aiding those
who construct their own homes, and by providing building materials, should
support their owning homes.
Figure 8. PLAN OF PERGAMON ACROPOLIS
municipality should realise the application of the Article 18 (dough) of the
Implementation Law, which is an important legal tool for the goal of the
application of the “Bergama Preservation-Aimed Plan” and the
realisation of applications and preservation which are for the good of the
public. This way, public-intended applications (roads, squares, parks, car
parks, kindergartens, green areas etc.) will be in public possession without
payment and the Municipality
of Bergama would have a
land stock which is important in applications.
Towards the Preservation and Improvement of the Urban Site:
making and application of preservation decisions constitute an
inter-organisational decision process. Although the P.C.H.V.
Supreme Council and the İzmir Preservation Council are
decision-making establishments, the rights of application, control and
financial resource allocation have been assigned to other public
establishments, and especially to local administrations.
a. Suggestions on
Municipality of Bergama should form a “Department of Preservation of the
Historical Environment”, answerable directly to the mayor, with the goal of
harmonising the future restorations and repairs and new buildings fitting the
plan with the urban site and its environment according to the “Application
Regulations,” “Plan Notes,” and the P.C.H.V. Council decisions. Among the
duties of this department should be directing and staging the infrastructure
and environment-arranging work that would be held by the municipality within
the urban pattern and controlling the applications related to single buildings
by checking how well they fit in with the plan.
applications should be supported by providing plans, projects and financial aid
to those who want to repair their homes. The public should be exposed to the
plans and projects on Bergama
through exhibitions, and the public interest, involvement and awareness should
be set by publishing booklets.
Municipality of Bergama should work towards the goal of
attracting the financial and technical support of the private sector and the
Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Tourism, the Department of Foundations and
other related establishments for the preservation of monumental and civilian
architecture examples. By introducing the “Bergama Preservation Plan”
and related projects to be developed in the international platforms, the
Municipality should obtain resources from culturally-oriented loans, funds and
b. Suggestions on
the Application Process:
our country, preservation implementation plans, like other implementation
plans, are being left alone to take their own natural course after a
quite-long-lasting approval process. However, urban parts that should be preserved
are inevitably ending up facing demolishment and destruction as the result of
the plan not being actively applied. Some years later, new works of
determination and documentation are held, and related to those, since the plan
is now outdated, the pressure causes a new plan to be made and the traditional
patterns are being lost in time. Moreover, applications like excluding parts
from the registration lists, and change in site boundaries as in Bergama are negative
effects upon this process. The application of preservation-aimed implementation
plans should not be spread out too much in time, unlike other area plans.
Planning and application processes like active planning, action planning,
priority-area planning and the divide-and-direct model should be the norm.
have to preserve and develop material and spiritual cultural Assets and their
natural environment, and pass them to future generations as whole and intact as
possible. However, being aware of the difficulties in application would be
beneficial in creating realistic solutions. During the work of the preservation
and development of the urban environment, the town of Bergama, which is archaeologically,
historically, architecturally, visually and ethnographically valuable, should
be preserved not as a dead museum, but as living environments which adds to the
touristical, cultural, social and economical development of the region they are
in and which can support sustainable development. Hence, the existing
analytical works should be updated through a healthy inventorial work and areas
in which the traditional architectural features are the majority, are being
distorted and are lost should be determined (Plan 6. Qualities of the Building Stock).
the initial financial support is provided for the actions to be initiated and
carried out in the areas to be preserved and improved, the functions assigned
to these areas should be connected to the mechanism for the continuation of
this financial support. Otherwise, consequences like the Municipality of Bergama
and Ministry of Culture paying irrevocable amounts even though for culture,
being limited or not being able to pay at all might be imminent. Thus, the
application of the aforementioned articles of the Law of Municipalities and the
realisation of related legal health and control forces would add a legal power
edge to the attempts of preserving the historical environment in Bergama.
the matter of the loans to be made to building owners, the “Regulations on the Repairs Contribution Fund of the Immobile Cultural
Assets in the Possession of Real and Legal Persons Under the Jurisdiction of
Special Law” (The Official Gazette dated 25.06.1985 and numbered 18791)
determines the methods and basis for the loans to be issued and material (in
kind), money (in cash) and technical support to be given by the Ministry of
Culture for buildings registered for preservation.
5 of Law Numbered 3386 says, “Registered
buildings reserved for cultural applications in the preservation-aimed
implementation plan could be publicised by the Municipality subject to the
approval of the Ministry, provided that the buildings is repaired and used.”
and provides the Municipalities with the possibility of publicising and
repairing the culturally-oriented buildings in the urban sites. Moreover, in
part (f) of the same article, it is said that “Parcel plots of land containing immobile cultural variables that has
to be preserved, under strict building prohibition since it is in a urban site,
could be exchanged with another piece of treasury land on request of the owner
and if the land contains a building or an establishment, payment shall be made
on request of the owner by determining the cost according to Article 11 of the
Law Numbered 2942.”. According to this point, there arises the possibility
of a mutual agreement between property owners and the municipality. The
possession of some special buildings within the urban site could be obtained by
of Bergama with such
Municipality of Bergama could construct organisations
unions, participating in unions and partnerships, giving privileges,
through an operation within or without the Municipality.
these organisations, especially the “Rotator-capital” and the “Operation”
organisations could be beneficial for urban preservation and
improvement/renovation. Such organisations could be established immediately
with the existing laws and could add an economical dimension to the activity of
preserving the historical environment.
determining the special project design areas that are within the whole of the
Bergama Preservation Plan and are named “Urban
Design Area (Priority Project Area)”
and determining the priorities according to the repair and environment-arrangement
projects that would be prepared, applications could commence.
these regions, first the infrastructure could be reformed and completed;
suprastructure arrangements could come later. Although there is a decision made
about continuing residential applications within the Special Project areas, the
works of preservation, reform and renovation in these regions could be carried
out by the rotating-capital management (or the co-operative). By operating the
residences as applications like pensions, student dormitories, official
residences etc., it is possible to recycle the investment. The duty region of
this operation, whose sort of operation is an “Operation of the Municipality”,
is the preservation/improvement region; and the most important tool determining
the boundaries around this duty is the “Preservation Plan”.
Municipality of Bergama should do its duty actively in
the matters summarised below for the application of a sustainable preservation
and improvement of the historical environment, by obtaining national and
international support together with the Ministry of Culture:
1.Resources should be
reallocated from related central-administrative (public) establishments and
organisations (The Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Tourism, the Ministry
of Building and Implementation, the Ministry of Finance and Customs, the
Department of Foundations, the Ministry of Environment etc.) to the
Municipality of Bergama in the urban preservation and improvement applications
that require a continuous, pre-planned, pre-programmed work based upon
Programs of the Municipality
of Bergama which
emphasize the matters of preservation, making healthier and improvement should
be supported by the related Ministries and resources should be reallocated for
3.The Municipality of Bergama, reconsidering its internal
structure, should form a effective unit
whose rights and responsibilities are determined, constituting of the related
branches of expertise (archaeology, restoration, urban preservation, urban
planning, architecture, peysage etc.). This unit should participate actively in
the attempts of planning, project-preparation, preservation/making
healthier/improvement and environmental arrangements.
4.A part of the public
social equipment areas should be obtained by applying the Article 18 of the
5.Building owners who
repair their building or arrange its surroundings according to the plan
conditions should be supported and be aided financially and with projects. In
case that the property-holder does not realise this application in a
pre-determined period of time, the Municipality should undertake the task.
most important resource in realising all those suggested above is the aid and
participation of those who dwell in Bergama.
The public should be convinced that the preservation of the historical
environment is good for Bergama
and the attempts of installing an awareness and concern for the historical
environment should be initiated in the elementary-school years.
c. Suggestions on the Social Structure:
the results from the “Bergama Social
Structure Research” by the Middle
East Technical University (1979) and the “Social
Survey” by Akman Project (1991) are evaluated together, it is possible to
state that in spite of some external physical effects on and renovations in
Bergama, the social structure has quite static and similar properties, that the
social and physical structure gets even more deformed with influences such as
the disturbance of the balance between the income groups and the gradual
reduction of the power of purchase.
is important to know the social structure of the people of the region, who will
be the greatest support in the preservation and improvement of the historical
environment in Bergama.
Bergama is a
settlement where the social mobility is not outside normal boundaries. Although
it has outward-immigration, since it also has inward-immigration the
demographical structure displays a dynamic case. This phenomenon, which we call
illegal building and wide-spread shantytowns, is on one hand forcing the
boundaries of the historical urban pattern and the archaeological sites
tighter, and is on the other hand disrupting the trends of urban development
which are growing as a whole with the aforementioned places.
most important point in preserving the historical urban pattern is being able
to eliminate the harmful effects of in-town mobility. Families whose income has
risen, or families which are in the high-income group that want to live in more
modern and comfortable residences or in the new prestige districts are moving
out of the historical urban pattern. The maintenance level of the old
residences hired-out is getting lower and, from a point of view, the historical
urban pattern is being left to be deformed and demolished.
landlord-tenant relation also affects the maintenance and repair level of the
buildings. Certain changes in application are required for a repair that would
be financially beneficial.
old Bergaman settlement is a social environment that should be improved by
considering it together with the archaeological site, the urban town center and
the new Bergama.
The districts within the traditional pattern display physical and social
features quite close to those of each other. However, as one shifts to the
south, it can be observed that the physical and social structure change. The
center in the traditional town center which
serves the traditional or semi-traditional, rural-origin or low-income
groups and the new trade center with tourism purposes which is around the Kızıl
Avlu and reaching out towards the south are influencing this social structure.
This social structure, seeming temporary and continuously-changing, holding the
trade and marginal professionals, is economically less powerful, is of a medium
level of education, and displays less concern/awareness for the historical
pattern and the archaeological areas.
overall concern for Bergama
has been increased significantly by the long-lasting factor of tourism, by
various infrastructure investments (PTT, road repairs, kindergartens,
arrangements of squares and intersections), and by the rise in introductory
publications and tourism investments.
are the suggestions on the social structure developed for easing preservation
·The success of plans
and projects of preservation is assured only with the acceptance of the public
and the local people and their applications towards the goal.
rights of the landlords and tenants, or in general, the residents in the
traditional pattern of Bergama
should be a primary goal in the attempts of preservation.
population density within the traditional pattern would be realised gradually
by the conversion of some buildings used for residential purposes to
applications put forward in the Preservation Plan. It is natural that a fast
intervention would be done with the hand of the public to some buildings that
require urgent repairs and should be protected with priority. The rights of the
property-holders and dwellers in that building should be protected as the
building is being won over.
exchange, determining a place and paying the true cost should be applied in
publicisations or tenant-evacuations. Considering that the people probably have
jobs in the immediate vicinity, the new buildings that are to be constructed
should be in the historical town center and its proximity as possible. The
application should be carried out with an approach so as to minimise the travel
costs of the people and prevent them from being estranged from their social
·Attempts should be
made to recreate the social structure in such a way as to lead the traditional
production and selling activities and to recreate existing hand crafts (copper-working,
leather-working, weaving etc.) and developing them; applications that would
open the way for modern artists to take place in this pattern as well as the
traditional Turkish hand crafts should be made.
·It is considered
that the support personnel for hosting activities (hotels, motels, pensions
etc.) and tradespeople settling in the old Bergama houses would help bringing
together the activities of preservation and improvement and economical
contemporary problems of preservation of many monumental and environmental
building in the urban sites of Bergama
and the long-lasting preparation procedure of the preservation-aimed
implementation plan are not mentioned in this article; rather, the general and
first-priority problems are emphasized. We bear the hope that the central and
local authorities, who were very particular about the Altar of Bergama, would
consider the problems mentioned above urgently.
M., 1991, “Bergama
Conservation Plan”, the Plan Report, AKMAN Project Ltd.
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