Wednesday, February 15, 2012



Prof. Dr. Mehmet Tunçer
Abant Izzet Baysal University




















“How sky buy or sell? We do not possess the clean air and glitter water. How you would buy these from us? Every part of the world is holy and lofty for my nation with our memories and experiences. We know that white man does not understand our customs. He is an alien who come at night and take everything that he needs from soil. World is not his friend but his enemy, and goes ahead while he captures the world. He steal world from children. His appetite absorbs world greedily, and leave a desert behind. When all kind of animals annihilated, we will die due to the loneliness of our souls, what has happened to animals will happened to us similarly. Everything depends upon each other. What has happened to world will similarly occur to children of the world. ” [1]


Political economy takes part in social sciences. Social life is complicated and has different directions, which covers politics, economy, culture, art and ideology. Different directions of social life are examined by various sciences. Political economy investigates society’s economic life and material production sphere. Production has two aspects, that is, technical and societal. In technical aspect, production is examined by technical and natural sciences. As different from these sciences, political economy deals with societal structure of production. The term ‘Political Economy’ is derived from “oykonomia” term that means administration science and “politikos” term that means government administration[2].

Bio-politics, contrary to political economy, investigates not societal life and production, but modifications, corruptions and pollutions in nature and life itself due to technological revolution and social progress, and search for new progresses occurred in every branch of sciences.  Bio-politics aims to integrate “environment” dimension to every branches of sciences and arts as products of human beings- such as science and technology, diplomacy, international collaboration, health, sports, energy, economy, communication modes, theology, philosophy, law, literature, history, mythology, arts, city planning and architecture; to examine interaction between environment, nature and human beings; and to re-arrange these relationships at a healthy and rationale platform.

The word of “bio-politics” had been created in line with belief that love of biology and “bios” (life) are the connection that attaches humanity to each other. Accelerating economic progress and technological innovations brings about exhausted natural resources and environmental pollution at a speedy rate.

“Bios” (life) helps us for better perception of meaning of life. The dimensions of biology reach a new perspective, which is called “Bio-politics”. Life is the most important natural disposition in the world. Today, attitudes that bring it to danger had been created a global threat[3]. (Proposal for a Bio-Syllabus)

International Prize for Outstanding Achievements
in the Race to Save the Environment


Food, clothing, housing, and other assets are must for living. However, all these material properties are the products of labor force. Production involves all working facilities that require production of material assets.

Production is a condition for existence of entire society. Before struggling with science, art or politics, human beings should meet their primitive living needs.
Marxism illustrated that all societal lives depends upon production of obligatory material assets.
Societal structures, economic and political conditions have been changing through the historical evolution; however, production always remains as a compulsory condition for societies’ existence.
Conditions of production have been faced with great alterations from the ancient ages till to present.
The ancient man had possessed only primitive instruments such as stone or thick sticks. For nourishment like gathering fruit or removing roots from soil they had used these instruments. In recent era, huge factories produce thousands and thousands various materials.
Science had been determined that production involves three fundamental elements, that is, labor force (working), working matter (object), and working instrument at all level of societal development. Everything that is implemented on labor force is working matter. Everything that human being has impacts on working matters through the way lined by himself is working instrument.
Everything obligatory for living are not generally exists present in nature. Human beings modify these natural objects properly for meeting their needs. Human beings cut trees for building their shelter, or produce brick, cement, iron, concrete and other tools by using such a way. In order to meet the need of clothing, they cultivate cotton, transform cotton into string, and then weave and sew it.
Human beings do not trust the nature’s philanthropy or kindness; therefore, they have to be effective on nature so as to acquire anything obligatory for living. Labor force creates a long-term war or fight (struggle) against nature. At this war, human beings benefit from natural powers such as animal force, vapor, electricity, chemical reactions, etc. in order to transform natural objects into more suitable usage with parallel to desired aim[4].
Working matter (object) is something that is implemented on labor force. This could be not only natural resources but also the objects, which are not processed before.
For example, let’s think about a miner who find out coal or mine ore. The miner breaks down the coal or mine ore, then take them on the ground. His working matter is coal layer or mine ore deposit, that is to say, a natural resource.
The same object can faced with various process phases. In political economy, the working matter produced at the previous phase is called “raw material”. Therefore, each raw material is a working matter; however, each working matter is not a raw material.
Ground, underground and water system are universal working matters. Nature is a kind of giant chest containing inexhaustible working matters/subjects. The duty of human beings is pull out and take these matters from sail or deepness of the sea.
However, the continuity of rapid economic growth is dependent on logic or illogic of more production and more consumption.
Ground, underground wealth and climate constitute integrity of natural conditions that possessed by human community. These natural conditions are changing gradually, but the forms of usage by human beings are altering very rapidly. These conditions’ usage form is mainly depending upon technical level.
Various natural wealth resources that were not regarded in economic importance until the recent time, now find wide usage areas. For instance, bioxide (boksit) which is the raw material of aluminum is not used anywhere at the near past. Today, they processed intensively.  In recent times, uranium deposits have begun to process after the invention of atomic energy resources.
The logic of is opposite to the logic of industrialization. High level of consumption could not support eternally in the world with insufficient resources. Seeking for continuous growth and development of industry, will deteriorate the planet and make people poor unavoidably[5].
Everything that people use for being efficient on working matter is working instrument. The first storehouse of working instruments had been the nature. The ancient men find the stone that they use in the nature. In time, working objects that were created by human beings from natural objects gained an important role. The most important role is taken by machines, or all equipments making production through all the working instruments. Everything that determines the quality of production is accurately working instruments. Perfection and renewal of working instruments are accelerated the sovereignty/dominance of human beings on nature.
Entire material conditions that are compulsory for production are working instruments. What is important is that soil, factory buildings, canals, roads regarded as universal working instruments and working matter/subject are the instruments of production. An object can be regarded as working instrument, raw material or product with reference to its role and location in the working process. Therefore, coal is a raw material at the coke factory and a product at the mine. Weaving workbench is a product at the textile machine factory and a working instrument at the textile industry[6].
Instruments of production are static objects without labor force does not take them into action.
Labor force is the most significant element of entire production. Animals perform the most complex actions instinctively; however, labor force is a conscious action. Labor force is solely peculiar/special tax for human beings.
Labor force has basically two characteristics. Firstly, it precedes a working process with beforehand determination aim; secondly, it depends tightly on working instruments’ production.
 Labor force is the preliminary condition for entire human lives.
The thing, that proofing human being is derived from animal cosmos, is that production of working instruments, which were so primitive at the beginning.
Animal only consumes the nature’s blessings; contrary to this, human beings are effective on nature by using labor force and step by step gain sovereignty on nature, and situated it beneficially for their goals.
Old economists rightfully stated that labor force is the father of wealth and the mother of soil.
The beginning stages of societal development, productivity of labor force was sparely low and the instruments were so primitive. However, division of labor was seen even at this era. Man had gone hunting, women had made housework, children and the aged people had tried to help them as much as possible.
The development of production results in division of labor. The birth of people working branches came on agenda. Tribes begun to deal with agriculture at the appropriate lands or survive with stock rising at other areas. The appearance of craftsmen (potters, ironmongers, weapon crafts, millers, etc.) had been developed the division of labor to a large extent.
The progress in the techniques results in developments in the production instruments and deepens division of labor. Industry is separated from agriculture. With the development of machinery, new plentiful working branches came on agenda such as production of energy machines; production of working service machine; metallurgy, textile, shoe, nourishment industry machine production; agricultural machine production, etc.
As seen above, production is the war of human beings against nature. Perfection of production instruments and development of working power are the symptoms of rising dominance of human beings on nature. This dominance/sovereignty is accompanied with environmental problems.


“ECOLOGY means appropriate harmony between human beings and nature.”
                                                                                   C.F. von Weizsacker

Economy” brings basically in disharmony and disorder with nature.
The definition of “Economic Utility” is acquisition of raw materials from nature directly or indirectly for production of assets.
Bio-Economy” means the investigation of impacts of biological sciences development on economy in order to measure the future social and economic growths. With the help of bio-politics, new technique cause new social and economic horizons and biology take part in many branches like health, agriculture, arts, etc[7].
Nature is polluted by emission and waste materials as a result of production of raw materials. Due to this fact, nature exchange with natural raw materials so as to produce waste materials. Besides labor force and capital, nature is the third exploited factor of production[8].
The most important components of proposed education system will be ‘how we develop the location of nature’, ‘how we take in guarantee the rights of nature’ and ‘how we preserve the conservation of nature’.
The topic of utilization of raw material and formation of waste materials has been known since centuries. Technological and scientific developments give opportunity to exploit the unsubstitutable natural resources on an accelerating rate and this cause increasing amount of the unannihilated waste materials.
Nature could not absorb these waste materials anymore and large amount of these waste materials are harmful not only for the nature but also for the human beings themselves.
When Marx and Engels had written Communist Party Manifesto, they speeches out the state would remove from the system. This would continue until reaching the abundant production in the worldwide, and this abundance would provide an opportunity of ‘everyone gets everything according to their needs’ in a classless communist society.
Marx had not anticipated increasing in population 12-14 times at two centuries. Furthermore, he had not foreseen “explosion of desires” realized by consumption society constituted by happy minority.
Moreover, Marx had not anticipated the gradual increasing inequality between developed countries and other countries dominated by central capitalism.
Besides, possibly un-renewalable resources such as energy, productive mine beds, cultivated soil, unpolluted air, and so on, has been exhausted dramatically, had also been foreseen.
Scarcity, starvation and epidemic diseases that are increasing dramatically had not been estimated.
All of these facts force us to scrutinize fundamentally of our opinions and understandings about future of humanity, “Optimal Population” of world, examples of production and consumption[9].
The first United Nations Conference on Human Environment held in Stockholm 15 years ago and emergency invitations had sent to countries.
Decisions of Stockholm are the first international attempt for environment protection decisions and certain missions/duties delivered to each country’s pioneer representatives.
By the side of one by one firms, the expenses for prevention or removal of pollution is included in firm’s cost accounts and decreases the firm’s profitability. On the other hand, the over pollution of environment affected not only the society but also the firms and firms’ labors’ families in an harmful way.
To do cleaning the environment, prevention of environmental balance corruption, finding solution for environmental problems make it obligatory that some resources for economic growth should be allocated for realize these aims.
Therefore, this can results in slowing down the velocity of economic growth.
The rule of “polluter pays” to the extent of determination helps society to pay great amounts of values. Nonetheless, there is a risk that this value is paid by society as a result of reflection to the prices.
The user of consolidation can share the expenditure for consolidation of environmental conditions; utilize the environment as a “public good” through user’s charge is generally accepted[10].


“In general term, education has an aim to include people to life as an active element, to make people utilize worth of culture and civilization, to make them innovator for contribution on science, arts, and their own worth’s.
The most fundamental principle for realizing this aim should be make people to obtain rational decision making capability, and encourage them to utilize cultural resources that belongs to humanity in line with bringing them up with wide-sight-horizon and far from fanaticism.
In-school education the aim should be in the framework of consciousness of teachers’ duties and responsibilities, educate students according to rotate them to the out-world for deepening the knowledge and studies should be arranged dependent upon students’ activities.
Teacher is not only instructor but also educator. Under the umbrella of this twin duty, teacher should realize the national education’s aims by using possibilities of school and his/her own capabilities and should brings up well-informed peoples who assimilate the knowledge and who make a connection to present time”. [11]
Education” is derived from Latin language and has equivalent meanings in some European language. Educare means feeding where educere means get out from something, orientation and bringing up.

1.   Education indicates a social institution and an education system. Education has a structure and process rules as an institution.
2.   The word of education is used as a result of an action. Education prepares and adapts youths for life.
3.   The word of education illustrates a process. This process connects two or more people each other deliberately or un-purposely; make them to be in relation with each other and encourage them to exchange their knowledge at a reciprocal platform. Education exceeds environment of school, and it is the process that could be seen/ observed at all ages and all situations in life[12].


1.   Instead of being “Dynamic”, it is “Static”. Education method does not allow creating a dialog between student and teacher or even among students.
2.   It is not give an opportunity for research or invention, but rote learning/ memorizing educational system exists.
3.   At present, there in no aim of bringing individuals up with general culture. Educate someone as an intellectual is not the goal of education system.
4.   The general approach of education is not totalitarian/ integrative but item-based.
5.   As a conclusion, coarse and out-of-fashion education level exists. [13]

In Turkey, there is no united education system in the county-wide level at present. An integrative education system can be established and existing system can be developed in the county-wide level. Pre-university education structure is a problem diffused on the worldwide.
Disciplines dealing with ENVIRONMENT at universities are architecture, Planning, some branches of engineering (Civil Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Physics Engineering, etc.) and sociology, economy, biology, geography, etc.
In recent years, “Environmental Engineering” departments were set up and Environmental Engineer as new occupation group was formed.
These departments’ educational programs are not give place to an interdisciplinary education between the disciplines pronounced above.
In medicine, a protective and preventive medicine branch against contagious diseases exists like Environmental Health and Society Doctor.

“As an old culture’s forms are dying, a new culture is created by few people who are not afraid of lack of confidence sensation”

                                                                                                          Rudolf  BAHRO

Since “Environmental Education” is defined by different groups for different aims with different comments, a definition is needed.
In environmental education there has been no systematic approach at hundreds of years and there is no action towards a system approach located in general education.
Environment should be taught to all members of the society without discrimination in ages and educational level. A system approach in environmental education should consist of following components:

1.   Environmental education should be comprehensive.
2.   Relations and interactions between global structure, nature and life segments should be included.
3.   Problems from these interactions results should be determined. [14]

Present education has not been reached to a sufficient level in terms of learning and teaching the system’s defects and weaknesses from almost the Middle Ages.
There is no exact agreement by whole educationalists and planners on environmental education’s definition.


1.   “Environmental Education” is a new approach in terms of teaching relations of human beings and environment. How human beings affect their environment and how environment affect them is the main topic of the environmental education.
2.   It is an integrative approach, which deals with structure of human beings and natural environment.
3.   It percepts school and its environmental society as an education laboratory; it teaches structure of human beings, natural and physical sources at an experiment-based teaching process.
4.   It follows an interdisciplinary approach on such worldwide subjects as social, scientific, cultural, economic, etc.
5.   It roots from living in an urban society and lives in societal development.
6.   It aims to bring up self-confident and motivated individuals who have environmental consciousness and responsibility.
7.   It brings a rationalist approach that helps to raise living quality, protect and developed it.
8.   Environmental education does not mean conservatism. It should not be regarded as a ‘nature education’ although it takes place in the environmental education programs.
9.   Environmental education is not extremely hard new ecucational program and not requires huge money and resources. [15]


As we look out the history of education about environmental subject, it is difficult to find an “original” education.
Ancient Greek Philosophers can be regarded as the first environment teachers. Environment had been interpreted and concerned at various periods of human development.
Human being-environment relationship is closely related with science, technology and progress level.
Society’s understanding about environment has geographical and societal differences and differs according to each regional structure characteristics at the same period.
Today’s individualistic and intellectual education is seen as scholastic and encyclopedia-rooted un-fashionable education although it exists in an environment that is technologically developed.
Basic resources that were used for explaining some environmental phenomenon such as “sun, soil, water” at the primitive communal societies left its place to the concept of “God” at the Middle Ages.
Another interesting issue on understanding the environment phenomenon is that struggle between the concepts of “Physics and Metaphysics” through thousands of years.
This phenomenon had taken its place in the concepts of “Science” and “Religion” through the history.
Parallel to the scientific development, interpreting the environment in a rational way had been accelerated in the philosophical and theological approach; therefore religion had begun to lose its power on this issue.
This is the evolution of idea oriented to the contemporary society where Galilee had dyed due to this fact.
The failure of environmental approaches and understandings at those ages results from implementing item-based strategies instead of an integrative approach.
Environment has been examining with many “-logy” such as geology, biology, sociology, etc.

“This world is not left behind as heritage by our ancestors; we borrowed it from our children”
An African Proverb


“What should we do in order to utilize the whole favors of industrialization and to reduce the natural destructions at its minimum level simultaneously? In more concrete sense, how sort of socio-politic arrangement system we develop for 5 million automobile would exist in İstanbul that has 8 million population, daily 500 kilogram garbage per person would collected, however, the Bosporus would still remain brightly, the air would not be polluted, there would not accumulated fuel oil at or beaches...Our duty is provision of sustainable development and prevention from harmful effects that limited us for utilizing the favors of this development: not prevention of development.” [16]
It is very difficult to differentiate education and research. Under-developed countries are not giving the required importance to the environmental problems’ education and research due to such facts that gross national[17] product is low and distribution of this is unequal.
Developed countries accomplished the renaissance and reform and they follow a rationalist way; therefore, this help them to solve environmental problems as well as creating solutions for crisis that they faced with in all other fields.
Education on environmental problems should be performed at everywhere continuously. The institutions of formal education perform this bit by bit without give a name to this. However, orientation to do this in an orderly manner and to reach a conscious level is important for prevention of waste of time, energy and material. [18]


Contemporary education addresses all stages of human life from birth to death.
In many countries, education before primary school, meaningly, education of children before 6 years-old was institutionalized.
Education of love of nature and consciousness should begin at early ages.
At early ages, children should be taught about bio-politics, human being-nature relationship and economic consumption patterns.
Such an education’s quality and program could be determined with the participation of psychoanalysts, psychologists, biologists and sociologists.


It can be possible for educating a primary school child (6-13 ages) about bio-politics and economic relations by arrangements in some courses’ scope and context.
The concepts of natural environment life’s foundations, human beings’ structural environment and natural interactions, environmental pollution should be took part in subjects of history, literature, geography, social sciences, citizenship information and basic sciences (mathematics, geometry, physics, chemistry, biology).
The main focus should especially be environmental problems results from utilization, production and consumption of natural resources, waste materials and acquiring returns, etc.
It would helps children for their advanced education that teaching them beginning from early ages of their childhood that they are the part of the biological life on earth and being sensitive to biological life.

The aims of Primary Education:

1.   To introduce their bio-environment to students, to provide creating a connection with other living creatures and make them more conscious.
2.   To develop student’s sensation of love, kindness and other senses related with preservation of nature by teaching them bringing-up process.
3.   To teach them the relations between creatures in the ecosystem and economic structure’s effects on these relations.
4.   To create moral judgment by teaching them the possible hazards that life (Bios) would be faced with and showing the results of economic production and utilization of resources.

The Methods of Education:

While teaching primary school students on relations of bio-politics and economy, the education methods that activate five-sense should be implemented so as to bring them up as sensitive towards nature and its rhythm. Sense of hear, smell, touch and see could be used in education with many directions.

- Effective expressions and explanations,
- Methods of individual research,
- The studies that developed their capabilities of determination and evaluation should be used.

The Principles of Education:

1.   The principles of economic and bio-politic structures and functions,
2.   The relations between ecosystem and economy,
3.   Explaining the human being’s cruel, hunter, communal, parasite and competitor characteristics,
4.   Explaining the actions of all creatures and the actions of human beings, and especially explaining the economic dimensions of production and consumption.
5.   Explaining the meaning of evolution, natural selection and formation of species, quality of gene and DNA, and explaining that annihilation of species could not substituted with another thing.
6.   The concepts of increase in population and control of population, the relations between economy and population, development- welfare and population,
7.   Explaining the principles of photosynthesis, the importance of agricultural products in economic side, and increase in environmental pollution by usage of fertilizers and medicines.
8.   Quality of control in pollution and protection of natural environment,

Teachers/ Instructors should encourage their students to questioning in moral, ethnic, religious, political, economical issues and other fields. (Proposal for Bio-Syllabus)
At present, education is not only a product of schools. Sociologists stress the importance of “parallel school”.
Generally out of schools, which are abstracted from world, children take many warnings from their living environment where it is not always useful.
Mass media including newspapers, radio and television, daily experiences and surroundings are educating them in a definite manner.
The aim is to bring up a child with a balanced character, developed birthly owned capabilities, equipped with knowledge related to bio-politics and economy, acquired new capabilities, being in harmony with new situations that he/she encounter, knowing to developed and correct himself/herself, and developed consciousness of environment.
It is necessary for creating human picture with consciousness about their locations on the world, equipped with universal cultural values, and makes them conscious about they are indebted to past and how the future will be.


In secondary school education epoch, human character begin to take a shape, a term includes very important years between childhood and adolescence.
At this epoch such an education should impose to children that give an opportunity for contributing his/her general culture in terms of the subjects of bio-politics and economy, developing  his/her qualities with the help of consideration capabilities, developing sensation of responsibility towards himself/herself in terms of spiritual and social contexts.
In this epoch, education has such aims as; to get an important status in the society, to sustain and conserve the culture, to reach a beautiful life with virtue and justice, to bring up honest peoples in order to modernize public life and state.
Besides these aims, educational program should contains approaches mainly depends upon the subjects of “Environment”, which is proposed to take place in every branches of science (-logy) at years of three thousands in a wider position and the relations between economy and environment, which is our dominant research topic.
The concepts of bio-politics / economy should be added to branches of sciences such as literature, grammar, biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, geology, astronomy, etc.
Lectures rooted from humanistic or social sciences (history, geography, social sciences, and music) should develop the students’ sensitivity and concerns on environmental issues.

1.   Ecosystem is managed with physical, biological and chemical rules,
2.   Human beings is controlled by values and norms,
3.   Issues such as the rules of economic system, labor force, production, consumption, environment; utilization of natural resources, annihilation of species; soil, water, and air pollution should be taught with reference to their reasons and relations.

The Aims of Secondary Education:

1.   To develop capabilities obtained at the primary school about subjects like research and investigation on life (bios),
2.   To explain the relationship between bio-environment and human beings,
3.   To explain  the problems related with the relationship between environment and economy,
4.   The ways/methods to discover the order or principles of bio-environment,
5.   The ways/methods to define and analyze, consider and think the reasons (economically dominant) affect the life and natural environment,
6.   To teach that there is a harmony and diversity in life, protection of biologic forms is needed, human life could only continue by this dynamic balance,
7.   To show that human’s actions and behaviors, economic production, consumption and activity    are changing according to their cultures and values; however, environmental problems appear depending on these actions.

The Methods of Education:

It is proposed that secondary school programs should be arranged to teach the relationship between bio-politics and economy with imposing the consciousness and anxiety of environment; and sustaining education and instruction by using methods listed below;

1.   Field Survey: Field surveys can be implemented, for example; visiting factories, purification foundations, garbage factories, sewerage system purification systems, which exhausted waste materials and made production; conservations and interviews with authorities at this fields; various social questionnaires; learning the decisions and opinions of local citizens about environmental problems, etc.
2.   Supporting education with visual materials such as television, radio, slide, etc.; collecting references systematically related with environmental issues (books, magazines, periodicals, etc.) and forming an archive; and using these references in lectures when necessary.
3.   Laboratory Experiments: Laboratories of biology, chemistry, physics, which are still exist in educational system should be rearrange to adapt various educational experiments and researches related with biology and life; performing and teaching analysis about pollution.
4.   Organized Discussion and Conversation: To provide citizen participation to organized discussion and conversation related with the topic held in seminars, discussions, panels, conferences, etc.    

The Scope of Education:

1.   The chemical foundation of life and the effects of economic activities on organic creatures; the reasons for pollution of  water, air, soil; the effects of excess production and consumption on annihilation of species,
2.   To explain the biological issues such as the structure and functions of cell and  genetics,   
3.   Virus and its role in illnesses; the effects of increase in population on environmental health; the economic cost of sanitary environment,
4.   Evolution Process: Explaining the processes of biological evolution, and social and economic evolution of human being comparatively,
5.   The biological structure of human being, the animal species of vertebrates and invertebrates, reptiles, plants and natural relation between them,
6.   The biotic and abiotic factors; mines; utilization of water, air and soil; examining economically according to the concept of cost-benefit,
7.   Explaining the basic principles of economics, the relationships between environment-economy-bio-politics. (Proposal for Bio-Syllabus)


To prepare individual for being organizer and member of a new society; to develop individuals physical and mental capabilities; to develop people as productive power; to develop the opportunities of being innovator; to arrange in order new society’s new moral values and behavioral principles; equipped people as a producer with necessary production knowledge and technical knowledge so as to develop production for utility of nature and society; to developed peoples’ political consciousness; to prepare them to participate in society administration directly and indirectly; to combine theory and practice, idea and scientific knowledge could possibly realized by performing required reforms in university education. [19]

Understanding bio-environment more accurately, performing investigations at scientific level in the concept of the relationship between environment and economy is seemed more possible at university level.
The university education and to create conscious peoples is so important due to the fact that university students are the potential decision-makers and leaders of the society.
Universities should cover the courses listed below in their bachelor’s degree programs related with life (bios) and bio-politics;

1.   For Science, Architecture and Engineering Bachelor’s degree students, the course of “Evaluation of Life and Bio-design”.  
The aim should be teaching the most necessary information about performing the most proper design and implementation in line with environment and bio-politics with the ignorance of minimum cost-maximum benefit principle, in the framework of designing patterns of economic production and consumption (e.g. a factory design, food packaging, and storing, waste material purification systems)    

2.   For Commerce, Accounting and Economy Bachelor’s degree students, the course of “Production and The Corruption of Bio-environment in Relation with Production”.
Re-interpreting economy in terms of different production aims, means and techniques, which are differ according to different systems (capitalist, socialist); re-locating the environmentally sensitive production methods, which reduce the utilization of natural resources at minimum, reduce the amount of waste material at its minimum level during production or re-use of these waste materials; prevention of destruction of bio-environment; teaching the methods of environment protection and reparation.

3.   For Law Bachelor’s degree students, the courses of  “Utilization of Law as a Control Mechanism on Science and Technology” or “Sociology of Law”
The education should cover such topics: Examining different law approaches, which are distinct in free market economy or centralized economic systems; arranging a new law system, which aims to protect and develop the environment, prohibiting the approaches that seem environment and life as an economical material, punish people with the principle of “polluter pays”, determining the potential pollution areas before and taking precautions in the framework of planned process, regulating the land-use and utilization of natural resources.

4.   To instruct “Bio-Technology” course as a professional lecture.
In scope of this course, bio-technology, examining economic dimensions of bio-technology, performing new evaluations with including environmental factor according to cost-benefit analysis is proposed.

5.   The course of “Environment” and other scientific courses related with environment.
The course of “Environment” should be instructed as a “must course” in all Science and Social Sciences fields/branches.
Exposed environment consciousness’ continuity with educational means could only be possible by instructing this in the concept of a scientific course.
The concept and the relationship of Environment/bio-politics/economy is the candidate chapter of this course.

6.   For Human and Social Sciences Bachelor’s degree students, the course of “The Role of Values and Behaviors in the Protection and Management of Bio-systems”
Society’s social and cultural norms and values, written and unwritten laws and rules, traditions and customs are affective on the basis of values and behaviors of human beings.
It is necessary for changing the judgment, which believes the nature is inexhaustible and unpolluted lasting for centuries.

Basic Guidelines of University Education:

1.   Studies should be held in order to develop proper and unpolluted technologies,
2.   It is necessary to provide utilization of resources in an effective and equal way,
3.   Biologic diversity should be maximized with the help of rational and logical strategies,
4.   Increase in population should be controlled in order to implement economic and bio-environmental programs effectively.

“If we do not desire to kill ourselves by ability of technology, we have to decrease population density or our demands seriously in a historically short time.” [20]
It is very important to perform field surveys, and research and evaluations in a disciplinary way at the university education. Students should learn to be conscious in terms of legal, political and moral aspects contrary to multi-dimensional life.


The concept of “continuous education” has become popular in new forms of education.
This type of education addresses/ directs the adults who have already an occupancy or skill. The main aim of this education is not to give a diploma/degree.
Principles of the birth of third term universities and providing education for the aged are being exposed / put forward.
Therefore, education is transformed to addresses the all step of human life from birth to death. [21]
Moreover, environmental problems require the urgent solutions, and spreading the environmental education and consciousness over the people who completed their education and educating these people on these issues.

Potential Education Group/ Mass the followings could take place;

- Managers and decision-makers of industry organization and firm,
- Public Administrators,
- Bio-environment activists,
- Low-degree educated people,

It is possible to reach these people or groups directly by using “mass media” instruments such as satellite, television, radio, newspapers (corner of environment and economy), magazines, periodicals, professional publications, advertisements. The concern and attention of public groups should be oriented to life and economic programs related with life by using these publications and media.
Therefore, it is supposed to be realize the “environment consciousness” and “anxiety of environment” in wider meanings, and performing a sanitary transition to a new societal order.


AKAT, A.S., “İktisatçılar ve Çevre”, ŞEHİR Dergisi, Çevre Özel Sayısı, Sayı:11, 1988.

ARVANITIS, A.V., “Biopolitics-Dimensions of Biology” , I. Int. Conf. on BİOPOLİTİCS The Bio-Environment, May 6-10-1987, Pub.B.I.O. , 1988, Athens, Greece.

BAHRO, R., “Nasıl Sosyalizm?, Hangi Yeşil? , Ne İçin Sanayi? , Der. , Tanıl Bora, Ayrıntı yay. 1989.

DUMONT, R., “Uçurumun Kıyısındaki Dünyamız” , Çev. Semih Tiryakioğlu, Varlık Yay. Nisan, 1976.

GÜREL, S., “Systems Approach to Environmental Education” June, 1973.

İstanbul 3.İdare Mahkemesi, 7.6.1988 tarih ve 1988/26 Sayılı Kararı.

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SIMONIS, U.E. , “Ecology and Economic Policy”,
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[1] 1855’te topraklarını satın almak isteyen ABD Hükümetine Dwam Kızılderili reisinin cevabı
[2] LEONTIEV, L. , 1976, s.10
[3] ARVANITIS, A.V. , 1988, s.15
[4] LEONTIEV, L. , 1976, s.14
[5] PORRITT, J. , 1988. S.57
[6] LEONTIEV, L. , 1976, s.17
[7] ARVANITIS, A.V. , 1988, s.18
[8] SIMONIS, U.E. , 1988, s.163
[9] DUMONT, R. , 1976. S.16
[10] KELEŞ, R. , 1984, s.442
[11] İstanbul 3. İdare Mahkemesi, 7.6.1988 tarih ve 1988/26 Sayılı Kararı
[12] TANİLLİ, S., 1988, s.12-13
[13] GÜREL, S. , 1973, s.14
[14] GÜREL, S. , 1973, s.5
[15] GÜREL, S. , 1973, age, s.6
[16] AKAT, A.S. , 1988, s.23
[17] YAVUZ, F. , 1975, s.166
[18] YAVUZ, F. , 1975, s.168
[19] TANİLLİ, S. 1988, s.26
[20] BAHRO, R. , 1989, s.143
[21] TANİLLİ, S. , 1988, s.14

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