Tuesday, February 14, 2012

BERGAMA (PERGAMON) ANTIQUE CITY : PRESERVING THE CITY OF CULTURE, ART AND SCIENCE


BERGAMA (PERGAMON) ANTIQUE CITY :  PRESERVING THE CITY OF CULTURE, ART AND SCIENCE

Prof. Dr. Mehmet TUNÇER [1]
Ankara, Turkey,
February 2002

I. AIM OF THE PAPER

The Altar of Pergamon, Turkey (today called as Bergama), its kidnapping to Berlin at Ottoman time and the struggle for its return, the former Mayor of Bergama, Sefa Taskin  spending the night in front of the Museum, is known to almost everyone who have a concern in the matter (Figure 1. The Zeus Altar).


Figure 1. THE ZEUS ALTAR OF PERGAMON  (BERLIN PERGAMON MUSEUM)

Indeed, even today, a lot of valuable archaeological pieces are being used as collected material in buildings in Bergama. A small museum could be filled with the pieces that a keen eye would notice in Bergama streets. The traditional pattern and new developments are intermingled today in Bergama, and the antique period remains are all but vanished (Figure 2) .


  
 Figure 2. Bergama (Pergamon) Antique City Settlement Plan
               (DEUTSCHEN ARCHEAOLOGY INSTITUT – 1981)

The urban and archaeological sites of Bergama, that is, the historical city that has been mentioned with admiration, researched and put into writing, and praised by scientists, archaeologists, architectures, art historians, city planners, sculptors and the like for more than two thousand years, faces the threat of destruction today in places… (View 1. The Panoramic Reconstruction of Bergama)

Especially,
·      The extraction of part of the town center, which was initially in the historical site,  from the site and the preparation of a new implementation plan, with a trend of denser building in that parts,
·      The illegal buildings in the archaeological sites merged with the town, especially around the Musalla Hill,
·      And the military land standing over archaeological remains,
have brought the Selçuklu and Ottoman Period traditional urban patterns and the two most important Roman Period theatres to the fringe of annihilation.
One of these theatres has been built in a form rarely encountered in Anatolia; like those theatres in Side and Aspendos, it has been built on a completely artificial basis with no natural supports. Another feature of this theatre is that it has been built on vaults set upon a stream and that, in times, the stream had been stopped and used for water sports and shows.
The other theatre has been named Viran Kapı[2]; olive trees have taken root in its caveat and it is struggling to protect its form from the shantytown buildings. The land surrounding these theatres have completely come under the reign of illegal building, urban infrastructure services like roads, water and electricity have been provided and the path to implementation reform title-deeds being issued has been opened. (Figure 3. The Antique Theatre)



Figure 3. PERGAMONS’ ACROPOLIS and ANTIQUE THEATRE 


The gravest danger to Bergama arises from the implementation plan currently in force, which has been prepared for the renovation of the town and which also contains the greater part of the traditional pattern (Figure 4. The Bergama Revised Implementation Plan (1/1000). In this plan, the Selçuk and Ottoman Period historical urban pattern of Bergama being completely disregarded, new roads unfitting the pattern have been proposed and some have been built, and large plots of land in conflict with the traditional plot and building order, plus high (4-5 story) buildings have been proposed as well. In accordance with the decisions of this plan, an important street has been built in the town center, and tearing down old Bergaman houses, permits have been given for new buildings. Within the town, especially around the traditional city center, buildings fitting this plan have started climbing high and the impressive Acropolis panorama from the İzmir road have been partially obscured. And when the city is viewed from the Acropolis, unfortunately, what is seen is that, the panorama and silhouette of the 2000-year-old town has been disfigured by ugly concrete blocks and the city identity has begun to be partially lost.



  

Figure 4. The Bergama Revised Implementation Plan (1/1000)

Since the urban historical site has been narrowed down to the boundaries of the historical city center, the implementation plan which is being applied in the areas outside this region will cause the Bergama historical town pattern and town identity to be gradually lost. The “Protection Plan”, which is being prepared in Bergama by the Ministry of Culture but not in force yet could check only some part of this implementation plan, and the number of allowed stories have been lowered. However, the remaining parts should be reconsidered as well, in a way so as to preserve and improve the city pattern and keeping the silhouettes in mind.

Another danger is for the Serapis Temple (Kızıl Avlu[3]), one of the greatest temples of Anatolia, considered to be one of the most important symbols of the Pax Romana Period in Anatolia, which has been built for Egyptian gods and been converted to a Basilica in the Byzantian Period, and for the vault  (tunnel) that the temple is built on. The Bergama Stream (Selinus) have been diverted to a tunnel approximately 200 m. to the east with the use of the temple and the social and religious buildings surrounding it; and a harmony has been created with downtown (Figure 5 . Kızıl Avlu (Serapis Temple at The end of 19Th Century). This part of Bergama has been standing for centuries and is known as the “Ne Yerde, Ne Gökte[4] District”. However, the Kozak-Bergama-Soma Road going next to the Kızıl Avlu upon this vault-tunnel and the load and the vibrations caused by the recently-increased heavy-vehicle traffic is damaging this building, which has stood for 2000 years, significantly. It can even be remarked that the vault-tunnel is in danger of caving in. It is required that this route be shifted further south, be cleared of heavy-vehicle traffic, and that a new bridge be built on the Bergama Stream south-east of the town, arranging the Kızıl Avlu and its proximity as a pedestrian-concentrated “Open-Air Museum”  (Figure 6. Kızıl Avlu (Serapis Temple) Today).



  
  Figure 5 . KIZIL AVLU (SERAPIS TEMPLE) (1840)

When the city is toured, it can be observed that many pieces remaining from antique periods are in use as collected material. Considering that the Roman period Bergama was a magnificent city with a population of 250000, and that the Selçuk and Ottoman city has been established entirely over this old town, it can be deduced that Hellenistic Period and Roman Period urban remains are lying under the areas that have been developed, at least up to the Republican Period. Keeping in mind that excavations by eliminating urban buildings are impossible, the importance of the foundation excavations of each new building for archaeology and art history is revealed. Actually, in the recent years, the Roman Theatre and Odeon on Hisar Street in Ankara has been exposed in such a building foundation excavation, and since it was in the “Museum-Controlled Region”, it has been publicized and the necessary precautions taken instantly and it was thus saved from destruction. Had there been no controlled excavation, as in many other locations, a 6-story building would now be rising on this theatre as well!





 Figure 6. KIZIL AVLU (SERAPIS TEMPLE) TODAY

Other than the Bergama Archaeological Sites, the excavations for the new buildings in the city should also be controlled, and evaluating every bit of data that can come out of that, the Hellenistic and Roman Period plan of the city should be created. The first of such investigations has been conducted by Carl Humann in 1879 Excavations in the areas determined from the better maps, with 1/2500 scale and dated 1926 that show the area in which the Ottoman City pattern was spread, should be museum controlled. Even the construction and exhibition of the reconstruction model of the city and would reveal the magnificence of the city in the antique ages better (Figure 7. Pergamon Acropolis Reconstruction Drawing).





 Figure 7. PERGAMON ACROPOLIS RECONSTRUCTION DRAWING

  
II. SUGGESTIONS TOWARDS THE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PROBLEMS

II.1. LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUGGESTIONS

On the matter of “Preservation of the Historical Environment”, the Central Administration and the Local Administrations should, together and in co-operation, develop deep-rooted administrative, legal, economical and financial solution paths. The Central Administration and Local Administrations have been given certain duties and authorities with the Preservation of Cultural and Natural Assets Law (numbered 2863and 3386), the Implementation Law (3194), and the Municipalities Law (1580) on the matter of the preservation of the historical environment.
However, it is not possible to say that in particular the local administrations are utilising these points of authority completely and correctly. The problems of historical environment occur in ways specific to each region. Thus, above all, the local administration is responsible for all kinds of local service. The local administrations are defined as public establishments “that meet the common and local needs of the people”. The two basic measures in the definition are that there are “common needs” of the people and that these needs are “local”.
The problems of the historical environment are also of the “local and common” problems. Hence, it can be said that the problem of preserving the historical environment is firstly the problem of the local administration. The municipalities are primarily responsible for regulating urban life. The municipality legislations have provided the municipalities with significant possibilities with the goal of regulating the urban life environment. Among these possibilities are the preparation of administrative regulating texts, applying the municipality penalty system and procedures like permissions and permits.
Certain articles in the 1930 dated and 1580 numbered Municipality Law has given the municipalities important authority and duties on preservation, environment arrangements and reforms. Although this law has lost its applicability in today’s conditions, it nonetheless is in force until a new local administration reform is realised.
The articles  numbered 15/35, 19, 115 and 159 impose upon the municipalities important duties about the preservation of the historical environment.

II.2. Controller Regulations:

The article no. 19 gives the municipalities the authorities of making all kinds of advances for easing urban life, make prohibitions and impose penalties upon those that do not follow the prohibitions. Based upon this authority, the Municipalities may bring rules about the functioning of controllers, which are the legal force of municipalities, with the “Controller Regulations” they prepare. However, today the controller regulations are little more than lists of prohibitions.
The controller regulations should determine the urban standard, principles, and requisites of living. A “Historical Environment Controller” force, equipped with the authority of checking and controlling issues like buildings in historical environments, repairs without permission, checking that the repairs are in accordance with the permit, and checking that the building application type fits the plan and the quality of the environment, should be formed; and should work locally in synchronisation with the Municipality Implementation Departments. These controllers could also be given a general “ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLLER” quality by linking them also to basic environmental problems such as air, water and soil pollution, noise, solid wastes, visual pollution (notices, signs and plaques), the problems of transport and parking, general hygiene of cities and green areas, that concern the urban environment closely.

II.3. Health Controller Regulations:

The General Hıfzısıhha (General Public Health) Law, numbered 1593, has given the Municipalities the right and duty to put out a “Health Controller Regulations”, subject to the condition that it be approved by the Ministries of Internal Affairs and Health. The Regulation aims for applying the decisions of the General Hıfzısıhha Law within the municipality boundaries using the municipality controllers. This regulations, which is for the urban environment and thus the historical environment which is an important part of it to be more healthy, should be prepared considering the standard principles and rules of the requirements of environmental health.

II.4. Implementation Regulations:

Rapid, unplanned urbanisation and land speculation lie at the roots of the problems of the historical environment. The urbanisation phenomenon has been regulated by the Implementation Laws and the imposed rules are being applied by the Implementation Regulations in Municipalities. Significant steps could be taken towards preservation with the addition of articles about the preservation, reform and improvement of the historical environment.

II.5. Permit Authorities:

One of the most important rights of Municipalities is that of “permitting” businesses that could create undesirable conditions as regards health during production. The permits, which are documents of permission for work, also include the work conditions. Only the businesses that satisfy these conditions are allowed to be initiated and operated. If the conditions are unsatisfied, the permit is revoked. It is basic that businesses with the quality of preserving and not harming the historical pattern should be placed within the historical environment. Checking of this and the control whether it fits the plan or not could be made during the permit stage of the businesses.
According to the General Hıfzısıhha Law, the I. and II. Grade Unhealthy Establishments, which are the Unhealthy Establishments that harm the historical environment, should be prevented from taking place within historical patterns. The permits of the existing ones should be revoked and they should be made to move to outside the pattern. And within the preservation-aimed plans, historical businesses which are harmonious with the traditional pattern and of traditional quality (carpet-making, kilim-making, handcrafts etc.) should be placed along with pension, hotel and residence applications.
With the regulation, whose old name is “Küşat Regulation” and new name is “Business-Initiating Regulation”, the municipalities have the right to determine the necessary conditions for the initiation and operation of sites of  production. Through this regulation, quite a large number of production establishments with a negative effect on natural and historical environment could be put into tight control.

Rules on “Building Permit”s and “Residing and Using Permits” should be rearranged in a way as to provide maintenance and repair for the historical environment. New buildings and repairs on old ones should be brought into accordance with the building and repair conditions explained in the Preservation-Aimed Plans and this should be controlled.
The legal rights mentioned above are still in use in our Municipalities. These rights could be utilised in an effective way for the preservation of the natural and historical environment and thus a better urban environment could be created.
However, municipalities do not have personnel aware of and educated on the matter of the preservation of the historical environment. The Ankara Greater Municipality has personnel of much higher quality and expertise in this matter as compared to the Şanlıurfa and Bergama Municipalities. The insufficiency of personnel brings about an important limitation on the issues of preservation planning, application and control in the historical environment.
Hence, the organisation structure of the municipality should be arranged with a futuristic outlook, a “Historical Environment Preservation Department” should be established directly answerable to the mayor and the implementation manager, and these units should be equipped by related, expertise professionals. The archaeologist, the art historian, the restoration-expert architect and the city planner should be the basic positions in these units. Along with the creation of the units, which will take time and be difficult, the municipalities using the paths available to them consciously will result in success in the attempts of preservation and improvement in historical environments. A responsibility such as leading and providing education for the attempts of the preservation of the historical environment falls to the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Buildings and Settlement.

III. STRATEGIES FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE HISTORICAL ENVIRONMENT FOR THE MUNICIPALITY OF BERGAMA

III.1. PRESERVATION POLICIES FOR ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES

Time, damage done by the mankind in the Bergama Archaeological and Urban Sites and erosion present a complex bouquet of problems. Along with the erosion of natural forces such as temperature change, earthquakes, wind and water etc., the centuries of plundering and damage by the mankind have caused unreplacable losses in the region. Through internationally accepted methods of excavation, restoration and preservation (The Venetian Regulations et al.), the abrasion of nature on archaeological sites and monumental buildings could be delayed.
A well-planned and well-executed advertisement and tour program would support the awareness today on this cultural heritage, which should be preserved for the next generation.
Special care should be given so that preservation is realised, the works are kept intact and exhibited in the best way possible. The most important of these processes is the prevention of shantytown occupation and illegal buildings within and around archaeological sites. Blocking multi-storey buildings and controlling the silhouette are of first importance. In places where the pattern is being disfigured, precautions should be taken with priority through “Preservation-Aimed” planning and project works.
Supporting the pieces still in the open air and the preservation of pieces on the ground are significant within the Archaeological Site. The archaeological remains should be protected, covered with light covers, be removed from the region with the aim of temporary storage or exhibition, or, where applicable, the work should be restored according to its original form, following the restoration principles. By gathering together the architectural structure elements which have broken off and scattered away from the original building for various reasons and by anastilosis applications, a sight of intactness would be given to the Antique Town.
For the “ARCHAEOPARK”, which is included in the Bergama Urban and Archaeological Sites Preservation-Aimed Implementation Plan, an “Archaeological Master Plan”, similar to the one having prepared by the Greater Municipality of Ankara, should be prepared and the reports of excavations, sondages and researches of various periods should be brought together scientifically.
By preparing the “Reconstruction Plan” of the town, the town pattern of the Hellenistic and Roman periods should be determined for certain, and, following that, detailed planning and project work should be undertaken according to the principles of archaeology, restoration, planning, landscape and urban furniture (Figure 8. Carl Human’s Plan of Pergamon)

III.2. PRESERVATION POLICIES FOR THE URBAN SITES

III.2.1. Macro Policies:

The Municipality of Bergama should determine the land and land plot stocks in public possession (treasury, foundations etc.) within the municipality bounds and these lands should be used towards the “Preservation-Aimed Implementation Plan” without being transferred to private possession.
For the end goal of a healthy control over the town’s development, the municipality should obtain plots of land within developing residential areas and, creating the infrastructure of these areas, should produce as many residences as it could; by assigning plots of land to those people which are resident in the areas marked for evacuation within archaeological or urban sites and by aiding those who construct their own homes, and by providing building materials, should support their owning homes.






  

Figure 8.  PLAN OF PERGAMON ACROPOLIS



The municipality should realise the application of the Article 18 (dough) of the Implementation Law, which is an important legal tool for the goal of the application of the Bergama Preservation-Aimed Plan” and the realisation of applications and preservation which are for the good of the public. This way, public-intended applications (roads, squares, parks, car parks, kindergartens, green areas etc.) will be in public possession without payment and the Municipality of Bergama would have a land stock which is important in applications.

III.2.2. Policies Towards the Preservation and Improvement of the Urban Site:

The making and application of preservation decisions constitute an inter-organisational decision process. Although the P.C.H.V.[5] Supreme  Council  and the İzmir Preservation Council are decision-making establishments, the rights of application, control and financial resource allocation have been assigned to other public establishments, and especially to local administrations.

a. Suggestions on Organisation:

The Municipality of Bergama should form a “Department of Preservation of the Historical Environment”, answerable directly to the mayor, with the goal of harmonising the future restorations and repairs and new buildings fitting the plan with the urban site and its environment according to the “Application Regulations,” “Plan Notes,” and the P.C.H.V. Council decisions. Among the duties of this department should be directing and staging the infrastructure and environment-arranging work that would be held by the municipality within the urban pattern and controlling the applications related to single buildings by checking how well they fit in with the plan.
Preservation applications should be supported by providing plans, projects and financial aid to those who want to repair their homes. The public should be exposed to the plans and projects on Bergama through exhibitions, and the public interest, involvement and awareness should be set by publishing booklets.
The Municipality of Bergama should work towards the goal of attracting the financial and technical support of the private sector and the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Tourism, the Department of Foundations and other related establishments for the preservation of monumental and civilian architecture examples. By introducing the Bergama Preservation Plan” and related projects to be developed in the international platforms, the Municipality should obtain resources from culturally-oriented loans, funds and aids.

b. Suggestions on the Application Process:

In our country, preservation implementation plans, like other implementation plans, are being left alone to take their own natural course after a quite-long-lasting approval process. However, urban parts that should be preserved are inevitably ending up facing demolishment and destruction as the result of the plan not being actively applied. Some years later, new works of determination and documentation are held, and related to those, since the plan is now outdated, the pressure causes a new plan to be made and the traditional patterns are being lost in time. Moreover, applications like excluding parts from the registration lists, and change in site boundaries as in Bergama are negative effects upon this process. The application of preservation-aimed implementation plans should not be spread out too much in time, unlike other area plans. Planning and application processes like active planning, action planning, priority-area planning and the divide-and-direct model should be the norm.
We have to preserve and develop material and spiritual cultural Assets and their natural environment, and pass them to future generations as whole and intact as possible. However, being aware of the difficulties in application would be beneficial in creating realistic solutions. During the work of the preservation and development of the urban environment, the town of Bergama, which is archaeologically, historically, architecturally, visually and ethnographically valuable, should be preserved not as a dead museum, but as living environments which adds to the touristical, cultural, social and economical development of the region they are in and which can support sustainable development. Hence, the existing analytical works should be updated through a healthy inventorial work and areas in which the traditional architectural features are the majority, are being distorted and are lost should be determined (Plan 6. Qualities of the Building Stock).
After the initial financial support is provided for the actions to be initiated and carried out in the areas to be preserved and improved, the functions assigned to these areas should be connected to the mechanism for the continuation of this financial support. Otherwise, consequences like the Municipality of Bergama and Ministry of Culture paying irrevocable amounts even though for culture, being limited or not being able to pay at all might be imminent. Thus, the application of the aforementioned articles of the Law of Municipalities and the realisation of related legal health and control forces would add a legal power edge to the attempts of preserving the historical environment  in Bergama.
On the matter of the loans to be made to building owners, the “Regulations on the Repairs Contribution Fund of the Immobile Cultural Assets in the Possession of Real and Legal Persons Under the Jurisdiction of Special Law” (The Official Gazette dated 25.06.1985 and numbered 18791) determines the methods and basis for the loans to be issued and material (in kind), money (in cash) and technical support to be given by the Ministry of Culture for buildings registered for preservation.
Article 5 of Law Numbered 3386 says, “Registered buildings reserved for cultural applications in the preservation-aimed implementation plan could be publicised by the Municipality subject to the approval of the Ministry, provided that the buildings is repaired and used.” and provides the Municipalities with the possibility of publicising and repairing the culturally-oriented buildings in the urban sites. Moreover, in part (f) of the same article, it is said that “Parcel plots of land containing immobile cultural variables that has to be preserved, under strict building prohibition since it is in a urban site, could be exchanged with another piece of treasury land on request of the owner and if the land contains a building or an establishment, payment shall be made on request of the owner by determining the cost according to Article 11 of the Law Numbered 2942.”. According to this point, there arises the possibility of a mutual agreement between property owners and the municipality. The possession of some special buildings within the urban site could be obtained by the Municipality of Bergama with such exchanges.

The Municipality of Bergama could construct organisations like
·      A rotating-capital operation,
·      Establishing unions, participating in unions and partnerships, giving privileges,
·      Directing through an operation within or without the Municipality.

Of these organisations, especially the “Rotator-capital” and the “Operation” organisations could be beneficial for urban preservation and improvement/renovation. Such organisations could be established immediately with the existing laws and could add an economical dimension to the activity of preserving the historical environment.
By determining the special project design areas that are within the whole of the Bergama Preservation Plan and are named “Urban Design Area (Priority Project Area)”  and determining the priorities according to the repair and environment-arrangement projects that would be prepared, applications could commence.
In these regions, first the infrastructure could be reformed and completed; suprastructure arrangements could come later. Although there is a decision made about continuing residential applications within the Special Project areas, the works of preservation, reform and renovation in these regions could be carried out by the rotating-capital management (or the co-operative). By operating the residences as applications like pensions, student dormitories, official residences etc., it is possible to recycle the investment. The duty region of this operation, whose sort of operation is an “Operation of the Municipality”, is the preservation/improvement region; and the most important tool determining the boundaries around this duty is the “Preservation Plan”.
The Municipality of Bergama should do its duty actively in the matters summarised below for the application of a sustainable preservation and improvement of the historical environment, by obtaining national and international support together with the Ministry of Culture:

1.      Resources should be reallocated from related central-administrative (public) establishments and organisations (The Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Tourism, the Ministry of Building and Implementation, the Ministry of Finance and Customs, the Department of Foundations, the Ministry of Environment etc.) to the Municipality of Bergama in the urban preservation and improvement applications that require a continuous, pre-planned, pre-programmed work based upon projects.
2.      The Implementation Programs of the Municipality of Bergama which emphasize the matters of preservation, making healthier and improvement should be supported by the related Ministries and resources should be reallocated for the application.
3.      The Municipality of Bergama, reconsidering its internal structure,  should form a effective unit whose rights and responsibilities are determined, constituting of the related branches of expertise (archaeology, restoration, urban preservation, urban planning, architecture, peysage etc.). This unit should participate actively in the attempts of planning, project-preparation, preservation/making healthier/improvement and environmental arrangements.
4.      A part of the public social equipment areas should be obtained by applying the Article 18 of the Implementation Law.
5.      Building owners who repair their building or arrange its surroundings according to the plan conditions should be supported and be aided financially and with projects. In case that the property-holder does not realise this application in a pre-determined period of time, the Municipality should undertake the task.

The most important resource in realising all those suggested above is the aid and participation of those who dwell in Bergama. The public should be convinced that the preservation of the historical environment is good for Bergama and the attempts of installing an awareness and concern for the historical environment should be initiated in the elementary-school years.

c. Suggestions on the Social Structure:

When the results from the “Bergama Social Structure Research”  by the Middle East Technical University (1979) and the “Social Survey” by Akman Project (1991) are evaluated together, it is possible to state that in spite of some external physical effects on and renovations in Bergama, the social structure has quite static and similar properties, that the social and physical structure gets even more deformed with influences such as the disturbance of the balance between the income groups and the gradual reduction of the power of purchase.
It is important to know the social structure of the people of the region, who will be the greatest support in the preservation and improvement of the historical environment in Bergama. Bergama is a settlement where the social mobility is not outside normal boundaries. Although it has outward-immigration, since it also has inward-immigration the demographical structure displays a dynamic case. This phenomenon, which we call illegal building and wide-spread shantytowns, is on one hand forcing the boundaries of the historical urban pattern and the archaeological sites tighter, and is on the other hand disrupting the trends of urban development which are growing as a whole with the aforementioned places.
The most important point in preserving the historical urban pattern is being able to eliminate the harmful effects of in-town mobility. Families whose income has risen, or families which are in the high-income group that want to live in more modern and comfortable residences or in the new prestige districts are moving out of the historical urban pattern. The maintenance level of the old residences hired-out is getting lower and, from a point of view, the historical urban pattern is being left to be deformed and demolished.
The landlord-tenant relation also affects the maintenance and repair level of the buildings. Certain changes in application are required for a repair that would be financially beneficial.
The old Bergaman settlement is a social environment that should be improved by considering it together with the archaeological site, the urban town center and the new Bergama. The districts within the traditional pattern display physical and social features quite close to those of each other. However, as one shifts to the south, it can be observed that the physical and social structure change. The center in the traditional town center which  serves the traditional or semi-traditional, rural-origin or low-income groups and the new trade center with tourism purposes which is around the Kızıl Avlu and reaching out towards the south are influencing this social structure. This social structure, seeming temporary and continuously-changing, holding the trade and marginal professionals, is economically less powerful, is of a medium level of education, and displays less concern/awareness for the historical pattern and the archaeological areas.
The overall concern for Bergama has been increased significantly by the long-lasting factor of tourism, by various infrastructure investments (PTT, road repairs, kindergartens, arrangements of squares and intersections), and by the rise in introductory publications and tourism investments.
Below are the suggestions on the social structure developed for easing preservation in Bergama:

·      The success of plans and projects of preservation is assured only with the acceptance of the public and the local people and their applications towards the goal.
·      Protecting the rights of the landlords and tenants, or in general, the residents in the traditional pattern of Bergama should be a primary goal in the attempts of preservation.
·      Decreasing the population density within the traditional pattern would be realised gradually by the conversion of some buildings used for residential purposes to applications put forward in the Preservation Plan. It is natural that a fast intervention would be done with the hand of the public to some buildings that require urgent repairs and should be protected with priority. The rights of the property-holders and dwellers in that building should be protected as the building is being won over.
·      Methods like exchange, determining a place and paying the true cost should be applied in publicisations or tenant-evacuations. Considering that the people probably have jobs in the immediate vicinity, the new buildings that are to be constructed should be in the historical town center and its proximity as possible. The application should be carried out with an approach so as to minimise the travel costs of the people and prevent them from being estranged from their social environment.
·      Attempts should be made to recreate the social structure in such a way as to lead the traditional production and selling activities and to recreate existing hand crafts (copper-working, leather-working, weaving etc.) and developing them; applications that would open the way for modern artists to take place in this pattern as well as the traditional Turkish hand crafts should be made.
·      It is considered that the support personnel for hosting activities (hotels, motels, pensions etc.) and tradespeople settling in the old Bergama houses would help bringing together the activities of preservation and improvement and economical activities.

The contemporary problems of preservation of many monumental and environmental building in the urban sites of Bergama and the long-lasting preparation procedure of the preservation-aimed implementation plan are not mentioned in this article; rather, the general and first-priority problems are emphasized. We bear the hope that the central and local authorities, who were very particular about the Altar of Bergama, would consider the problems mentioned above urgently.


RESOURCES

·      TUNCER, M., 1991, “Bergama Conservation Plan”, the Plan Report, AKMAN Project Ltd.
·      ERIS, E., 1991, “History of Civilization in Bergama”, the Cultural Publications of the Municipality of Bergama, No. 2.
·      KARAGOZOĞLU, H.F., SONMEZ, I., KARAGOZOGLU, T., 1989, “Law of Mobile-Immobile Ancient Works.”
·      TOL, S., USLU, A., ODTU, Dept. of Restoration, Faculty of Architecture, 1979, “The Evaluation of an Example Area from the Bergama Historical Residential Pattern: The Yamaçevler Settlement, Dede-Kadı Street.”
·      TUNCER, M., 1995, “The Policy of Preserving the Historical Environment for Sustainable Development: Examples of Ankara, Bergama and Şanlıurfa.” Unpublished Doctorate Dissertation, A.Ü., F.P.S.
·      TUNCER, M., 1993, “The Social Structure of the Bergama Historical Urban Pattern and Suggestions on Preservation,” Konutbirlik Magazine, p. 107.



[1]  Prof. in Restoration, Fac. Of  Architecture and Engineering, Dep. Architecture, Abant Izzet Baysal  University, Golkoy Campus, Bolu, TURKEY.
[2] “Viran Kapı”=”Ruined Door.”
[3] “Kızıl Avlu”=”Red Yard”
[4] “Ne Yerde, Ne Gökte”= Literally translated “Neither on the Earth, Nor in the Sky”, idiom signifying the buildings in the area sitting on vaults through which a stream is flowing…
[5] P.C.H.V.: Protection of Cultural and Historical Assets; = K.T.V.K.: Kültürel ve Tarihsel Varlıkları Koruma.

2 comments:

Anonymous said...

It's enormous that you are getting ideas from this post as well as from our argument made here.
my website: swollen ankles remedy

Anonymous said...

First off I would like to say excellent blog! I had a quick
question in which I'd like to ask if you don't mind.
I was interested to know how you center yourself and clear your thoughts before writing.
I have had a hard time clearing my thoughts in getting my thoughts out there.
I truly do enjoy writing but it just seems like the first 10
to 15 minutes are usually lost simply just trying to figure out how
to begin. Any suggestions or hints? Appreciate it!



My web blog - car check northern ireland ()